The nao la rua tien

Tags: thi truong tai chinh, toan cau hoa, cac cong ty, rua tien, nao la, nhung nguoi, hoat dong, the nao, kinh te, ban, lam, hop, viec, cang


Toan cau hoa dem lai nhieu loi ich cho nhan loai song no cung lam tram trong hon mot so te nan. Mot trong nhung hau qua dang tiec ay la rua tien tro nen de dang hon, do do khuyen khich nhung hoat dong phi phap khac. Nhieu ban doc thac mac hoi TS: Rua tien la gi? Bai viet duoi day phan nao se giup cac ban giai dap thac mac.

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Rua tien la mot loai hinh toi pham.
Rua tien la gi?

Rua tien la viec bien doi thu nhap phi phap thanh tai san ma cac co quan cong quyen khong the truy ra nguon goc phi phap ay. Rua tien khong phai la mot hien tuong moi. Theo nhieu su gia, thuong nhan Trung Quoc da biet “rua tien” hon ba ngan nam truoc de tranh thue cua trieu dinh. Tuy nhien, hoat dong nay da bung no voi toan cau hoa, gay nhieu hau qua nghiem trong ve kinh te va xa hoi, dac biet o cac nuoc dang phat trien hoac chuyen tiep.

Ai can rua tien?

Co the xep nhung nguoi rua tien (ngoai cac to chuc khung bo, mot hien tuong tuong doi moi) lam ba nhom:

Nhung nguoi buon lau (ma tuy, vu khi, lao dong bat hop phap…).

Nhung nguoi tham nhung.

Nhung nguoi muon tranh thue, noi chung la nhung nguoi muon giu kin thu nhap that su (du la hop phap) cua minh.

Tien ban co the tu cac doanh nghiep lam an cong khai, chang han khi ho chuyen tien tu nuoc nay sang nuoc khac de tranh thue. Co hai phuong phap de lam viec nay. Mot la khai gian gia tri nhung dich vu ma ban chat la hop phap. Hai la khai (nhu trong hoa don) mot dich vu hoan toan khong co (ke ca viec lap cong ty ma). Trong cac nguon tien can rua thi co le nguon kinh doanh la phan anh tinh toan cau hoa nhieu nhat, ma mot trong nhung bieu hien la viec khai man gia chuyen giao (transfer price) de tranh thue cua cac cong ty xuyen quoc gia.

Tat nhien, ba nhom tren khong hoan toan biet lap: tham nhung, rua tien, va kinh doanh bat chinh co nhieu cho giong nhau, cau ket voi nhau, va tiep suc cho nhau. Vi du, tham nhung thi can co nguoi de rua tien hoi lo, nguoi rua tien nay co the la toi pham chuyen nghiep, hoac cong ty ma. Nguoc lai, toi pham va doanh nghiep cung thuong dut lot cac quan chuc tham o de lam ngo dich vu rua tien.

Cong nghiep rua tien

Du khong it toi pham dich than rua tien ban cua minh, mot nganh “cong nghiep” rua tien da xuat hien de phuc vu nhung ca the co tien ban. Doi ngu cua nganh nay, chu chot la nhung nguoi rua tien chuyen nghiep, ngay cang duoc tang cuong voi nhieu luat su cao gia, nguoi giao dich chung khoan, mua ban bat dong san, co van thue vu, ke toan... That vay, co le bien tuong noi bat nhat cua bo may rua tien la cang ngay no cang xam nhap sau vao nhieu linh vuc kinh doanh, nganh nghe tuong doi co uy tin trong xa hoi (nhu cac ngan hang lon, hiep hoi the thao, co so van hoa, tham chi cac co quan tu thien). Qua do, cach thuc va phuong tien rua tien ngay cang tinh vi, da dang, quy mo hon.

Nhin chung, hinh thuc rua tien cung dang trai qua nhieu thay doi: it dua vao tien mat, vao he thong ngan hang… ma su dung nhieu hon cac cong cu va thi truong tai chinh khac (nhu chung khoan) hoac hinh thuc “hang doi hang” (vi du: ma tuy doi lay vu khi).

Tu thap ky 1990, cong nghiep rua tien lai duoc them nhieu “cu hich” do cac thay doi ve the che va chinh sach tai chinh cung nhu nhung tien bo ve cong nghe.

Thu nhat, hau het moi quoc gia deu noi long kiem soat ngoai hoi, nhat la tu dau thap ky 1990. O nhieu nuoc, viec doi noi te ra ngoai te, va nguoc lai, la hoan toan tu do. Luong tien hoan doi hang ngay da tang tu 590 ty USD nam 1989 len 1.880 ty nam 2004. Di xa hon, nhieu quoc gia da chinh thuc su dung chung mot thu tien (truong hop dong euro), hoac cong nhan USD hay euro nhu la noi te ban chinh thuc cua ho. Mot so cong cu tai chinh moi (nhu cac loai hop dong chung khoan), doi khi rat phuc tap, da xuat hien. Nho the, mot luong tien (sach hay ban) khong lo co the duoc chuyen tu nuoc nay sang nuoc khac trong nhay mat, ngoai tam kiem soat cua co quan cong luc.

Thu hai, tien do mo cua kinh te o hau het cac nuoc da tang vot, nhat la tu 10-15 nam gan day. Cac thi truong tai chinh (dac biet la von) tro nen thong thoang hon. So luong tien luu hanh toan cau da tang gap ba (tu 6.800 ty USD nam 1990 len den 19.900 ty USD nam 2005), muc do phuc tap cung tang len. Hien nhien, cang nhieu loai hinh dich vu tai chinh thi cang lam co hoi va cach thuc de chuyen tien phi phap, hoac dua tien ban vao luong tien sach.

Thu ba, canh tranh thu hut von ngay cang kich liet giua cac nuoc, cac cong ty phat hanh chung khoan, cac ngan hang va cac loai dinh che tai chinh trung gian khac. Day cung la su kien lam nhung nguoi rua tien thich thu vi ho biet rang som muon gi cung co ngan hang, hay cac cong ty chung khoan, san sang nhan tien cua ho ma khong can biet nguon goc tien ay.

Thu tu, la tac dong cua cuoc cach mang thong tin. O rat nhieu nuoc, ngan hang la linh vuc dua tien bo cong nghe thong tin vao ung dung som va nhanh nhat. Nhung thanh qua cua cuoc cach mang thong tin da duoc nhung nguoi rua tien loi dung triet de, trong khi do, o linh vuc nay, cac co quan cong luc to ra cham chap hon nhieu, nhat la khi ho can phoi hop giua nhieu dia phuong hay xuyen quoc gia.

Cuoi cung, phai ke den nhung loi rua tien moi, su dung internet. Nhung trang web “den” nhu trang sex, co bac, ca cuoc... thuong duoc dung de rua tien vi cac co quan cong luc kho co the truy ra tien ay tu dau den va vao tay ai.

Hau qua va chinh sach

Cung co nguoi cho rang, mot so quoc gia, nhat la o phuong Tay, da co loi nho tien ban.

Khach quan nhin tu quan diem phan bo nguon luc (tam gac qua mot ben nhung phan doan dao ly va phap luat), mot so nha kinh te cuc doan (ton sung thi truong) cho rang khong co tien nao la ban, tien nao la sach. Theo ho, “rua tien” chi la phan ung “hop ly” cua moi “ca the kinh te”: khong ai muon tra thue va ai cung muon van dung tai san cua minh vao nhung hoat dong dem lai nhieu loi nhuan nhat. Nhu vay, tien ban, theo ho, da giup phat trien kinh te.

Song, ngay tren co so thuan ly thuyet, y kien nay la hoan toan sai lam. Tu ban chat cua no, su phan bo tai nguyen do rua tien khong chi theo tin hieu loi nhuan, ma phan lon la de tron tranh luat phap. Hoat dong rua tien vua lang phi nguon luc kinh te cua xa hoi (vao cac hoat dong toi pham sinh ra tien ban, thay vi vao cac hoat dong san xuat that su huu ich), vua bop meo su phan bo cac nguon luc ay.

Ngoai nhung anh huong ve phan bo tai nguyen, luong tien ban cung se lam sai lech cac thong ke kinh te. Ngoai ra, anh huong cua moi loai tien ban co khac nhau (chang han tien ban do tham nhung co anh huong khac tien ban do buon lau). Thieu nhung con so chinh xac, tat nhien la chinh sach kinh te (nhat la ve tien te, nhu viec dieu chinh lai suat) se khong the dung lieu luong va huu hieu duoc.

Tien ban va hoat dong rua tien cung anh huong sau sac den phan bo thu nhap (tao bat cong) va lam chao dao su tin nhiem cua xa hoi vao cac thi truong tai chinh. Nhin tu quan diem tang truong vi mo, co the day la tai hai nguy hiem nhat.

Lam sao de chong rua tien? Ro rang la can su quyet tam cua moi quoc gia va su phoi hop toan cau. Mot kho khan can ban hien nay la moi nuoc danh gia tinh quan trong cua moi loai tien ban mot khac. O cac nuoc cham tien thi nan tham nhung rua tien la van de nhuc nhoi nhat. Trai lai, cac nuoc phuong tay thi xem viec rua tien ban lien he den khung bo la quan trong nhat va khong he “che” tien ban do tham nhung o cac nuoc khac.

(Theo Saigon Times)

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