Phong chong HIVAIDS Can thay doi cach truyen thong

Tags: Thai Lan, Trung Quoc, Viet Nam, y te cong cong, te nan xa hoi, su ky thi, trong thoi gian, lam cong tac, bao cao su, truyen thong, cong dong, nhung nguoi, tu van, ma tuy, mai dam, HIV/AIDS

-Da den luc can thay bien phap truyen thong ve HIV/AIDS. Thang 12 nay, se co mot chuong trinh truyen hinh ma trong do nguoi khong nhiem sanh vai cung nguoi nhiem...

Phong chong HIV/AIDS: Can thay doi cach truyen thong

Trong 15 nam qua (1990-2005), truyen thong ve HIV/AIDS o Viet Nam it nhieu dat duoc nhung thanh cong nhat dinh, nhu giup nguoi dan hieu biet hon ve ba duong lay truyen chinh cua can benh (thay vi truoc day nguoi ta da cho rang HIV/AIDS la can benh cua nuoc ngoai, HIV duoc “nhap khau” va lay truyen o Viet Nam la do nhung nguoi nam trong nhom te nan xa hoi); di sau vao tung tang lop nhu Hoi Phu nu, Doan Thanh nien, cong nhan, sinh vien, hoc sinh; Dac biet, truyen thong cung giup cho cac tuyen truyen vien tiep can duoc nhieu hon nua voi doi tuong dich, la “coi nguon” cua su lay truyen.

Ben canh nhung dieu dat duoc, truyen thong ve HIV/AIDS trong thoi gian qua van nang tinh “hu doa” hon la giai thich. That su chua lam thay doi hanh vi cung nhu dong vien cong dong trong toan xa hoi tham gia tich cuc vao viec phong, chong HIV/AIDS.

Lech duong ray

Qua cac kenh thong tin, truyen thong ve HIV/AIDS thuong dua ra cac tieu pham, hinh anh, pano ap phich rung ron ve can benh the ky. Nhung chuong trinh ve HIV/AIDS tren ti vi, bao chi, san khau, ca nhac, tranh anh, pano ap phich, to roi tuyen truyen...chung ta co the bat gap nhung hinh anh ghe so nhu dau lau xuong cheo, qua cau gai hay nhung than hinh nguoi gay guoc, tieu tuy...

Nhung hinh anh nay tuy giup nguoi dan canh giac voi HIV va nhan biet su nguy hiem cua mai dam ma tuy, nhung vo hinh trung tao ra trong tiem thuc moi nguoi su ne tranh con ech voi mot tam ly ghe so, lam tang su ky thi voi nguoi mac benh.

Dieu do vo tinh lam suy yeu nhung co gang tot dep cua chuong trinh phong chong HIV/AIDS nham lam giam su ky thi va phan biet doi xu voi nguoi co HIV. Va ngay nay cac co quan ban nganh phai len tieng tim moi cach de xoa bo khoang cach, xoa bo su ky thi voi nhung nguoi nhiem HIV. Day cung la rao can kha lon cua viec phong chong HIV/AIDS trong thoi diem hien tai.

TS. Nguyen Huy Nga, Cuc truong Cuc Phong chong HIV/AIDS Quoc gia:

Sap toi chung toi se khong di theo kieu “hu doa” bang nhung khau ngu, pano ap phich ma tuyen truyen mang tinh chat di sau vao tung doi tuong. Cu the, cuoi thang 12 nay se co mot chuong trinh truyen hinh, trong do nhung nguoi nhiem HIV va nhung nguoi binh thuong cung di choi, uong bia, tam su va tham gia cong tac xa hoi...

Trong luat phap co qui dinh ro, co cong bo tinh trang nhiem hay khong la do nguoi nhiem quyet dinh. Khong ai co quyen cong bo hinh anh cua ho voi bat ky hinh thuc nao khi chua co y kien cua ho, trong thoi gian toi van the. Gan day, dac biet la chuan bi cho ngay Quoc te phong chong HIV/AIDS 1/12 da co nhieu nguoi cong bo tinh trang nhiem cua minh. Theo toi, day la dau hieu tot.

Qua day, chung toi cung mong muon cac kenh truyen thong gop phan hon nua de chong lai su ky thi, phan biet doi xu voi nguoi co HIV. Ban than nhung nguoi nhiem HIV/AIDS la nhung benh nhan dang can su giup do, cong dong nen dang tay ra don lay va giup do ho. Nen xoa bo hinh anh nguoi co nhiem HIV/AIDS la hinh anh cua mot nguoi ma tuy, mai dam.

Thuc te, nhung nguoi nhiem HIV con khoe manh van co the dong gop nhieu cho cong dong. The nhung truyen thong trong thoi gian qua thuong hay tap trung mieu ta phan den toi nhat trong cuoc song cua nguoi nhiem HIV ma quen di nhung dieu ho da lam va dong gop cho xa hoi, chu yeu di sau ve ho o giai doan AIDS. Dieu nay khien cong dong ngo nhan nguoi co nhiem virus la vo dung. Truyen thong chua hoac quen mat di hinh anh nhung nguoi nhiem HIV con co nhieu kha nang keo dai su song, song khoe manh de lam viec va cong hien nhieu cho xa hoi.

O Viet Nam thoi gian qua, co the noi truyen thong va HIV/AIDS da di lech duong ray vi da gan HIV/AIDS voi te nan xa hoi bang nhieu hinh thuc. Trong nhieu buc tranh, nhung chu ma tuy, mai dam va HIV/AIDS thuong di lien nhau, ngu y nhung hien tuong nay la ban dong hanh va HIV cung la te nan.Khong it nguoi tu lon tuoi den nhung tre em o do tuoi hoc sinh tieu hoc deu thuoc long cau “ma tuy, mai dam la mam sida”. Ma tuy, mai dam la hai doi tuong trong nhom te nan xa hoi da, dang len an. Day lai la coi nguon cua su lay nhiem, tu mot cach suy luan pho thong nhat van hieu nguoi co HIV/AIDS deu buoc ra tu te nan.

Cau khau ngu da bat nguoi doc danh dong nan nhan va te nan la mot.

Day la nhung nguyen nhan khien nguoi co mang HIV/AIDS bi miet thi, xa lanh.

Tich cuc

Da den luc, viec phai lap tuc thay doi cach thuc truyen thong ve AIDS la dieu can thiet. Cac tranh anh, tieu pham, ca khuc, phong su ve HIV xuat hien tren cac ken thong tin truyen thong cua bao, dai cung can den luc phai dua ra nhung mang mau cuoc song cua nguoi co HIV tuoi sang hon. Vi vay, truyen thong ve HIV/AIDS khong nen chi dung lai, dua vao cac phuong tien thong tin dai chung pho bien ma can co su giao tiep giua cac ca nhan trong cong dong voi nhau.

Va day cung la thoi diem can phai go bo cac hoa pham, nhung pano ap phich cu noi cong cong, thay vao nhung buc tranh moi voi thong diep luon canh giac voi HIV/AIDS nham tuyen truyen rang HIV cung la mot can benh, khong phai te nan, nguoi nhiem HIV van song binh thuong va khong gay hai cho cong dong neu biet cach phong ngua.

Trong thoi gian dai vua qua, thong diep va hinh thuc truyen thong ve HIV/AIDS cho thanh thieu nien con mang tinh chung nhat, chua tac dong lon toi nhan thuc ve HIV/AIDS. Can xay dung thong diep cung nhu phuong thuc truyen thong co hieu qua cua quoc te den voi tat ca nguoi dan tu thanh pho den nong thon noi chung, trong thanh thieu nien noi rieng, nhat la o khu vuc nong thon, vung sau vung xa. Dieu nay can duoc thuc hien thuong xuyen, lien tuc tranh cam giac tuyen truyen theo kieu “den hen lai len” de nham doi pho va vi thanh tich.

Dieu ma cong dong dang mong muon hien nay la: truyen thong tuyen truyen ve HIV/AIDS phai huong toi yeu to tich cuc, tu do giup cong dong co cai nhin binh dang voi nguoi hien dang chung song voi HIV/AIDS tai Viet Nam.

Can co bien phap manh: kim tiem, bao cao su va Methadone

(Trao doi voi TS Le Tran Lam - chuyen vien Project Policy Viet Nam)

Xin ong cho biet toc do lan truyen cua HIV/AIDS o VN hien nay so voi the gioi va khu vuc?

Rat nhanh, dac biet so voi Thai Lan va Trung Quoc. Toc do lan truyen cua HIV/AIDS o VN hien nay gan giong voi o Thai Lan cach day 13 nam, va co phan manh me hon. Do VN nam trong vung ma tuy, tam giac vang Myanma - Thai Lan - Trung Quoc. VN lai co toi 25 tinh giap bien gioi.

Phia Bac giap cac tinh co ty le nguoi nhiem HIV - AIDS trong nhom ma tuy rat cao cua TQ. Nguon lay nhiem xuat phat ca tu nhung gai mai dam hoat dong 2 ben bien gioi Viet Trung lan nhung nguoi dan ong buon ban ma tuy qua lai 2 noi do. Tu phia Tay, hoat dong mai dam o 9 tinh giap bien gioi Campuchia dien ra rat manh me, dac biet o nhung vung Hau Giang, Kien Giang... Nhung co gai hanh nghe mai dam cung "phat tan" mam benh len ca TP.HCM va ra Ha Noi. Phia Lao buon ban ma tuy va mai dam cung dien ra soi dong.

Ro rang, VN bi "danh" tu ca 4 phia, ca tu cac vung bien gioi va trong noi bo.

Anh danh gia nhu the nao ve doi ngu tu van o VN?

Nhin chung van con yeu neu xet ca tu 2 cap do. Nhung can bo y te cap cao lam cong tac y te cong cong thi chua duoc dao tao nghiep vu va chua gan gui nguoi benh.

Cac bac si dieu tri thi tuy co bang cap chuyen mon nhung chua duoc tap huan ve nghiep vu tu van, ve xa hoi hoc hay tam ly hoc. Cac nuoc nhu Thai Lan, Trung Quoc rat chu trong boi duong cong tac xa hoi hoc va tam ly hoc cho doi ngu bac si tu van HIV/AIDS. Hien gio, neu can, benh nhan co the den benh vien de duoc tu van mien phi nhung thuong thi buoi tu van chi rat ngan va so sai.

Nhung nguoi bi nhiem HIV, khi bi sot, san sang ra hieu thuoc mua khang sinh va uong theo huong dan cua ba ban thuoc hon la theo don cua bac si. Ro rang viec tu van o VN dang bi anh huong boi yeu to tam ly.

Hien nay, Luat da co che do rieng cho nguoi lam cong tac tu van mien phi hay chua?

Chua. Vi co nguoi cho rang, cong tac tu van phai gan voi cac bac si, y ta chu khong phai nguoi lam cong tac y te cong cong. Doi ngu lam y te cong cong chua duoc de cao dung muc.

Hien nay, nhieu to chuc phi chinh phu lam cong tac tu van rat tot nhung it nguoi benh biet de tim den. Moi lien ket giua cac to chuc cung rat long leo. Truyen thong da khong lam duoc viec cung cap cac dia chi tu van cho benh nhan.

Lau nay chung ta van noi nhieu ve van de chong su ky thi nguoi lay nhiem. Nhung lieu co mau thuan giua viec bao dam tinh nhan van voi nguoi bi nhiem HIV va bao ve quyen loi cong dong? Neu giau thong tin ve nguoi bi benh thi cong dong co the bi phoi nhiem khi tiep xuc voi benh nhan ma khong biet?

Day la van de tam ly. Khong chi o chau A ma ca chau My, tam ly con nguoi cung giong nhau thoi. Neu chung ta bi mat thong tin, nguoi nhiem HIV se nghi ve nhung dieu tot dep. Nhung tren thuc te o cong dong, ngay ca nhung nguoi ruot thit cung rat e ngai tiep xuc voi nguoi bi benh.

Tren the gioi da co nhung nghien cuu lon cho thay, viec ky thi cua cong dong cang gay nhieu tac hai, vi du, ty le toi pham gia tang.

Vay nen, voi cong dong bi nhiem, nen day len mot phong trao, rang xa hoi khong he ky thi neu cac anh chi song an toan va khong de lay nhiem ra xa hoi.

Hien chung ta dang tien hanh cac bien phap an toan nhu phat bao cao su va kim tiem sach cho nhung nguoi bi nhiem benh. Lieu chung ta co nen khoanh vung doi tuong de tranh bi hieu nham la dang khuyen khich cho viec lay lan ra cong dong hay khong?

Day la nhung bien phap da duoc nhieu nuoc tien tien thuc hien. Cac dieu tra xa hoi hoc da chung minh rang, viec phat kim tiem sach cho nguoi bi benh da lam giam han ty le lay nhiem ra cong dong. Vi du ben Thai Lan, nguoi ta tien hanh chuong trinh 100% bao cao su, phat khong mien phi cho gai mai dam va bat ky nguoi khach qua duong nao. Chi vuong chuong trinh Methadone chua duoc Chinh phu phe duyet.

Anh co the noi ro hon ve thuoc Methadone?

Day la mot loai thuoc gay nghien nhung nhe hon heroin. Khi benh nhan len con, cho ho uong Methadone, ho se quen di heroin va khong con trom cap hay pha phach de mua bang duoc heroin nua.

Trong hon mot nam vua roi, chung toi da co gang chung minh hieu qua thuc te va khoa hoc cua thuoc Methadone. Neu dua vao su dung, thuoc se giup han che ty le toi pham. Boi heroin rat dat va lieu "phe" cuc nang, neu dung no, nguoi ta se cang lan sau vao toi loi.

Tom lai chung ta can co nhung bien phap nao de ngan chan su phat trien va lay lan cua HIV/AIDS?

Phai huy dong tong luc. Truoc het, truyen thong phai manh me, cu the, phu thuoc vao boi canh van hoa vung mien. Khong nen dung nhung khau hieu manh kieu: "Dung dung kim tiem ban" ma phai la nhung khau hieu co tinh chat khuyen khich trach nhiem. Hon nua, phai cung cap them hieu biet cho nguoi benh. Vi du, voi nhung nguoi da bi lay nhiem, khong the ngan can ho thoi dung heroin. Vo ich! Nen dua cho ho dia chi cung cap mien phi bom kim tiem sach va thuoc Methadone, khuyen ho nen doi xu voi "ban tinh" co trach nhiem.

Thu 2, tu van cung phai rat cu the va tuy boi canh. Hien chung ta chua co mot doi ngu tu van o cong dong de lam chi tiet nhu len lich uong thuoc, len lich kham chua benh, tim hieu tac dung phu cua viec dieu tri. Boi thuoc dieu tri HIV/AIDS phai kien tri dung ca doi.

Hien, benh nhan van duoc dua vao khoa lay de dieu tri benh truyen nhiem. Nhung doi ngu cua chung ta dang con mong nen chua the lam duoc het.

Hon nua, chung ta can co bien phap can thiep manh: Bom kim tiem, bao cao su va thuoc Methadone.

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