Moi truong VN san vi do thi khu cong nghiep

Tags: Viet Nam, Hai Phong, O Quang Ninh, o nhiem moi truong, He sinh thai rung, bao ve moi truong, rung ngap man, khu do thi, xu ly, phat trien, dau tu, chat thai, co so, giao thong, gay


Quy hoach thieu tam nhin khien moi truong bat on: O Ha Noi, cac khu cong nghiep nam nhu vanh dai bao vay tu phia. O Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, he sinh thai rung ngap man dang suy thoai vi nan san lap bo bien de phat trien do thi.

Moi truong VN "san" vi do thi, khu cong nghiep!
Viet Nam chi moi xu ly duoc 20% luong chat thai!

Tai Hoi nghi quoc te Moi truong o Viet Nam va cac bien phap xu ly (Ha Noi, 26/10) GS.TSKH Pham Ngoc Dang dua ra nhieu "dien hinh" kem ve quy hoach khu do thi, cong nghiep. Nhu Ha Noi qui hoach phat trien cac khu cong nghiep theo kieu phan tan, tao thanh vanh dai cong nghiep bao vay tu phia; hau qua la kho giai quyet cac van de moi truong buc bach trong tuong lai, hieu qua kinh te cua cac khu cong nghiep nay lai khong cao.

Truong hop khac, Nha may Dien Quang Ninh voi cong suat 1200 MW duoc dat tai phuong Ha Khanh, TP.Ha Long, chac chan gay o nhiem moi truong cho cac khu do thi xung quanh. GS. Dang cung de cap hien tuong san lap bo bien de phat trien do thi nhu o Quang Ninh, Hai Phong va nhieu thanh pho ven bien khac va khang dinh hau qua suy thoai moi truong ven bien, dac biet voi he sinh thai rung ngap man...

Mot vi du ve su kem coi trong quy hoach duoc nhieu dai bieu nhac toi la cac khu cong nghiep o luu vuc song Thi Vai. Do khong duoc danh gia tac dong den moi truong chung cua toan luu vuc khi xay dung, khu cong nghiep nay da gay o nhiem tram trong cho song Thi Vai.

Theo dinh huong qui hoach phat trien kinh te - xa hoi vung kinh te trong diem phia Bac, Viet Nam se phat trien cac diem do thi co qui mo 25 van dan tro len tren co so phat trien 7 khu cong nghiep moi theo truc duong QL 18. Nhung thuc te den nay, doc truc duong nay chua hinh thanh khu do thi moi, khu cong nghiep moi nao. Trong khi do, doc QL 5 da hinh thanh nhieu khu cong nghiep moi khong theo qui hoach chung cua toan vung. Cac van de moi truong nay sinh khi phat trien rat nhieu khu cong nghiep va khu do thi doc theo duong 5 hien chua duoc xem xet.

Tai Hoi thao, cac nha khoa hoc va cac chuyen gia moi truong deu thong nhat lay phong ngua o nhiem moi truong lam uu tien trong Chien luoc bao ve moi truong (BVMT) Viet Nam den nam 2010 va dinh huong den nam 2020. Giai phap duoc uu tien hang dau la long ghep quy hoach BVMT voi quy hoach phat trien do thi va cong nghiep de dam bao phat trien ben vung.

Hoi thao de nghi uu tien xu ly triet de cac co so cong nghiep gay o nhiem nghiem trong nam xen ke trong cac khu dan cu. Khong mo rong san xuat cac nha may cu, khu cong nghiep cu ma chu yeu la dau tu nang cap va hien dai hoa cong nghe san xuat de giam thieu o nhiem. Doi voi tat ca cac du an dau tu moi, chi cho dau tu vao cac khu cong nghiep va su dung cong nghe va thiet bi hien dai. Hoi thao cung yeu cau dau tu xay dung ha tang ky thuat bao ve moi truong cho tat ca cac khu cong nghiep truoc khi cho thue dat dau tu cac nha may (dac biet la tram xu ly nuoc thai). Thu gom va xu ly triet de chat thi cong nghiep nguy hai. Dam bao dat chi tieu cay xanh va vanh dai cay xanh tai cac khu cong nghiep.

Cac dai bieu de xuat nhieu bien phap khac nhu: cai tao he thong giao thong (dac biet la cac nut giao thong de giam thieu tai nan va tac nghen giao thong), phat trien giao thong cong cong, han che xe oto ca nhan va xe may, kiem soat chat che chat luong xe ve mat moi truong de giam thieu o nhiem khong khi va tieng on do giao thong gay ra; phoi hop nhip nhang giua cac co quan quan ly xay dung, giao thong, dien, nuoc, thong tin... trong viec xay dung, sua chua ha tang ky thuat do thi de tranh tinh trang nay lap mai dao duong, vua lang phi tien cua, vua lam cho duong xa luon ban thiu; tang cuong "luc hoa" do thi de vua giam o nhiem khong khi vua cai thien vi khi hau thanh pho; ap dung cac cong cu kinh te - “nguoi gay o nhiem phai tra tien” - trong quan ly moi truong do thi; tang cuong cong tac quan trac moi truong, thanh tra moi truong, kiem soat o nhiem do thi...

Uu tien phat trien cong nghe than thien moi truong

Theo ba Chu Thi Sang (Cuc Bao ve Moi truong, Bo Tai nguyen va Moi truong) qua trinh do thi hoa nhanh se gia tang luong chat thai bao gom khi thai giao thong; nuoc thai va rac thai sinh hoat. Van de o nhiem do bui va tieng on tai hau het cac do thi dang la van de cap bach. Tai cac do thi lon (Ha Noi, TP. HCM), da co nhung khu vuc bi o nhiem do khi CO, chat huu co bay hoi (VOC). Nguyen nhan chinh la do gia tang qua muc luong o to va xe may, chat luong duong sa yeu kem va ti le xe cu cao (so luong xe co 10-20 nam su dung chiem 73%);

Thu tuong Chinh phu da ra Quyet dinh so 64/2003/QD-TTg ve ''Ke hoach xu ly triet de cac co so gay o nhiem moi truong nghiem trong'' voi muc tieu truoc mat den nam 2007 tap trung xu ly triet de 439 co so gay o nhiem nghiem trong, trong do 284 co so san xuat kinh doanh. Den nam 2012, tiep tuc xu ly 3.856 co so gay o nhiem moi truong nghiem trong con lai va cac co so moi phat sinh, dong thoi day manh cong tac phong ngua ngan chan o nhiem.

Hon nua, van de thu gom va xu ly nuoc thai sinh hoat tai tat ca cac do thi chua duoc trien khai.Hien nay co 32 do thi co quy hoach xay dung bai chon lap rac hop ve sinh, trong do co 13 do thi dang xay dung. Tuy nhien, cho den nay rat it dia phuong co duoc khu xu ly rac dat tieu chuan ve sinh. Ong Phung Van Vui - Pho Cuc truong Cuc Bao ve Moi truong, Bo Tai nguyen va Moi truong thi cho biet, Viet Nam hien moi xu ly duoc 20% luong chat thai; so con lai chua duoc xu ly hoac chi xu ly co hoc.

Ba Chu Thi Sang de nghi uu tien phat trien cong nghe than thien moi truong, dac biet uu tien cac du an dau tu ap dung cong nghe than thien moi truong nhu viec su dung nguyen lieu, nhien lieu dau vao phuc vu cho san xuat it chat thai, hoac tai su dung chat thai nham han che muc thap nhat kinh phi dau tu cho xu ly chat thai.

Khuyen khich mo hinh khu cong nghiep sinh thai, tang cuong viec trao doi chat thai, tai su dung, tuan hoan chat thai giua cac nha may trong khu cong nghiep; Khuyen khich cac doanh nghiep ap dung san xuat sach hon nham giam thieu o nhiem va nang cao hieu qua kinh te cho cac doanh nghiep la phuong phap toi uu trong hoan canh cong nghe san xuat cua Viet Nam con lac hau, y thuc cong nhan chua cao, dau tu kinh phi con han che.

  • Kieu Minh
Viet Bao

Tìm hiểu: Viet Nam, Hai Phong, O Quang Ninh, o nhiem moi truong, He sinh thai rung, bao ve moi truong, rung ngap man, khu do thi, xu ly, phat trien, dau tu, chat thai, co so, giao thong, gay
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