Cac khai niem duoc dinh nghia trong phan Ly luan van hoc SGK Van hoc 11 con nhieu sai sot

Tags: Tran Dinh Su, GSTS Tran Dinh Su, NXB Giao Duc, Ly luan van hoc, tac pham van hoc, khai niem co ban, duoc dinh nghia, khong phai la, su chi giao, noi dung, y nghia, cam hung, chung toi, hien tuong, doi song, nguoi


Phan "LY LUAN VAN HOC" cua SGK "Van hoc 11-tap 2" sach chinh ly hop nhat cua Bo GD&DT, NXB Giao Duc 2000, do GSTS Tran Dinh Su soan, con nhieu khai niem, nhieu dinh nghia mang tinh ly luan chua chuan xac. Chung toi xin phep trao doi voi tac gia Tran Dinh Su, mong nho su chi giao cua cong luan de dung sai minh bach, dang giup con em chung ta tiep nhan duoc chinh xac nhung khai niem co ban nhat cua ly luan van hoc.

Viec SGK dong nhat khai niem noi dung tac pham va y nghia tac pham la mot su lam lan rat dang tiec. O SGK trang 106, trong bai "Tac pham van hoc" co phan 3 voi tieu de nhu sau: "Cac lop y nghia cua tac pham van hoc". Cung bai hoc nay, trang 96 Sach giao vien, huong dan giang cung van de ay, phan 3 ay nhung lai mang mot tieu de hoan toan khac: "Cac lop noi dung cua tac pham". Hoa ra voi GSTS Tran Dinh Su, noi dung chinh la y nghia u? SGK dong nhat noi dung la y nghia, nhu trang 96 sach huong dan giao vien viet: "Trong tac pham, cac lop noi dung nay vua la y nghia cua van ban nghe thuat vua la yeu to cua chinh the tac pham...".

Theo thien y cua chung toi thi noi dung tac pham van hoc la toan bo hien thuc duoc phan anh chua dung trong mot hinh thuc nghe thuat nao do, thong qua ngon ngu va hinh tuong van hoc. Con y nghia tac pham van hoc la nghia ly rot rao, la tin hieu phat ra tan ben trong sau xa cua hinh tuong, duoc chung cat, chat loc tu tinh than noi dung tac pham. Vi du, y nghia cua Truyen Kieu khong phai la toan bo noi dung Truyen Kieu. Y nghia cua nu cuoi khong phai la chinh nu cuoi ay, ma la cai tin hieu ben trong sau xa nhat, cai y tu ngam bi mat nhat duoc nu cuoi phat di nhu cuoi de hen ho, cuoi de dieu cot, cuoi tan dong, cuoi phan doi, cuoi bang quo...

Sau khi dong nhat y nghia tac pham la noi dung tac pham, SGK dinh nghia noi dung o trang 106 nhu sau: "Noi dung cua tac pham la su cam nhan, ly giai, danh gia cua con nguoi doi voi cac hien tuong doi song nhu tinh cach, le song, tinh nguoi, xa hoi, thien nhien, thien ac dep xau...". Ma su "cam nhan, ly giai, danh gia cua con nguoi doi voi cac hien tuong doi song nhu tinh cach, le song, tinh nguoi, xa hoi, thien nhien, thien ac, dep xau" la gi neu khong phai la chinh the gioi hien thuc duoc nha van phan anh vao tac pham van hoc? The thi, noi nhu SGK, noi dung tac pham chinh la su phan anh hien thuc a? Chao oi, khi SGK day cho hoc sinh trung hoc rang noi dung tac pham la chinh hien thuc duoc phan anh thi con gi la ly luan van hoc nua. Tat ca cac bo mon tren kien truc thuong tang gom toan bo khoa hoc tu nhien va xa hoi deu la phan anh hien thuc khach quan ca do sao? Van hoc khac toan hoc, vat ly hoc, triet hoc... o cho the gioi khach quan duoc phan anh vao tac pham thong qua chu quan cua nha van. Hay noi cach khac, tac pham van hoc chinh la the gioi chu quan duoc khach quan hoa. Van hoc nghe thuat do do khac voi cac bo mon kia vi no la linh vuc tinh cam, la thai do tham my cua con nguoi.

Trong phan 3 voi tieu de: "Cac lop y nghia cua tac pham" trong SGK thay co cac muc nho nhu sau: de tai, chu de, cam hung, quan niem, tham my. Sach giao vien da dua "cac mon" tren vao cung mot ro voi mot dinh nghia kha ky quac nhu sau: "Cai goi la de tai, chu de, cam hung chu dao... cua tac pham van hoc thuc chat la cac lop y nghia, cac mach noi tai cua tac pham the hien qua cac yeu to lien tiep hoac lap lai cua van ban, lam noi bat len cac moi lien he voi hien thuc". Qua nhung dinh nghia mang tinh dong nhat moi chung loai kia cua SGK, chung ta co mot hang dang thuc "de so" nhu sau: noi dung = y nghia = de tai = chu de = cam hung = quan niem = tham mi. Dong nhat cua la cay, cay la cong, cong la ram, ram la da trang, da trang lai la cua... theo kieu "ly luan van hoc ky da la cha cac ke, cac ke la me ky nhong, ky nhong la ong ky da" tren cua SGK, thi than oi, ly luan cung chang con ma van hoc cung se tieu tan.

Bay gio, chung ta thu khao sat cac khai niem khac duoc SGK dinh nghia ra sao? Day la dinh nghia "de tai": "De tai la hien tuong doi song duoc the hien qua mieu ta". "Hien tuong doi song" la gi neu khong phai la chinh doi song? "The hien qua mieu ta" noi van gon chinh la chinh su mieu ta. Dinh nghia tren dong nghia voi su rut gon nhu sau: "De tai la doi song duoc mieu ta". Buc tranh, ban nhac, hinh khoi dieu khac, kien truc, tac pham nhiep anh... cung nhu van hoc deu la doi song duoc mieu ta ca. Vay muon het sai, dinh nghia ve de tai tren phai viet lai nhu sau : "De tai trong van hoc la pham vi doi song duoc the hien qua mieu ta".

Chung ta hay xem SGK dinh nghia "chu de": "Chu de la van de chinh ma tac pham muon neu len qua mot hien tuong doi song". The thi cai "hien tuong doi song" di vao tac pham bang cong nao, cach nao, cong triet hoc, su hoc, y hoc, toan hoc, hay van hoc day? Hay la "hien tuong doi song" co sao cu be nguyen xi, be het vao tac pham? Dinh nghia tren sai vi no thieu mot tu "mieu ta". Chung toi xin viet lai dinh nghia "chu de" nhu sau: "Chu de la van de chinh tac pham muon neu len qua su mieu ta mot hien tuong doi song".

Day la dinh nghia cua SGK ve khai niem "cam hung": "Cam hung la noi dung tinh cam cua tac pham". Truoc het, viec SGK dung tu "cam hung" (inspiration) o day la khong on. Vi su cam hung thuong danh de noi ve nhung cam xuc ban dau trao dang, thuc day tri tuong tuong sang tao cua nha van trong viec hinh thanh tac pham. Y SGK muon noi, muon day cho hoc tro phan nay la tac pham van hoc tao ra cam hung cho nguoi doc . Dien dat y nay bang tu "cam hung" la toi nghia. Sao khong thay tu "cam hung" bang tu "truyen cam". "Cam hung" la xuc cam tao nen tac pham cua nha van. Con "truyen cam" la chinh tac pham ay gay ra cho nguoi doc. Cum tu "noi dung tinh cam" dung noi day cung chua that chinh xac. Da co khai niem "noi dung tinh cam" thi cung co the co khai niem "noi dung ly tri"? Theo dinh nghia tien de cua SGK thi noi dung da la cam hung. Thu thay tu "noi dung" vao tu "cam hung" trong dinh nghia tren, ta co mot menh de kha ngo nghinh: "Cam hung la cam hung tinh cam cua tac pham". Chung toi xin thay dinh nghia ve "cam hung" tren cua SGK, bang dinh nghia ve tinh truyen cam cua tac pham nhu sau: "Tinh truyen cam la suc hap dan duoc tao ra tu chinh tac pham".

Xin dan mot dinh nghia khac cua SGK: "Quan niem ve the gioi va con nguoi la noi dung triet ly cua tac pham". Cau van dinh nghia tren cua SGK qua toi nghia vi no thieu chu ngu. The thi "Quan niem ve the gioi va con nguoi" nay la cua nha van hay cua tac pham? Boi vi khong phai nha van quan niem ve the gioi nhu the nao thi trong tac pham cu phai the hien dung y nhu the. Khong phai cuon sach nao tu tuong cua tac gia cung la tu tuong cua tac pham. "Noi dung triet ly cua tac pham" cung chinh la triet ly cua tac pham. Dinh nghia tren cua SGK sai lam vi no dong nghia quan niem va triet ly. "Quan niem" la su nhin nhan mot van de, mot su vat nao do theo chinh kien nao do. Con "triet ly" chinh la nhung quan niem, nhung tu tuong sau sac nhat, khai quat nhat toat ra tu tac pham. Chung toi xin viet lai dinh nghia tren cho chinh xac hon: "Quan niem cua tac pham la su nhin nhan mot van de, mot hien tuong doi song theo mot the gioi quan nao do".

Xin dan mot dinh nghia khac cua SGK: "Sac dieu tham my cua tac pham la cai dep chu yeu tuong ung voi cam hung va chu de tac pham". Sao lai dung tu rac roi hoa hoe hoa soi "sac dieu" nay de day cho hoc sinh? Sao khong noi gian di de hieu la "Tinh tham my cua tac pham"? Chang le cai dep-tinh tham my cua tac pham chu yeu chi tuong ung voi cam hung va chu de thoi u? The thi noi dung va hinh thuc nghe thuat tao ra hung khoi cho nguoi doc khong tham du gi vao "thich thu tham my" hay sao? Dinh nghia ve tinh tham my cua SGK tren la sai bet. Chung toi xin viet lai dinh nghia nay nhu sau: "Tinh tham my la su hap dan cua cai hay, cai dep trong tac pham duoc tao ra tu su hai hoa giua noi dung va hinh thuc".

Phan "Ly luan van hoc" do ong Tran Dinh Su viet con nhieu sai sot khac ma bai viet nay vi khuon kho khong cho phep, chung toi xin hen mot dip khac. That dang buon la nhung dieu sai trai tren da va dang duoc giang day trong nha truong, anh huong khong tot toi mon Van la mon quan trong bac nhat vi no day tre lam nguoi. Day lam nguoi ma day sai thi nguy hai nay chinh la nguy hai cua ca quoc gia day. Chung toi viet bai bao nay nham danh dong du luan toan xa hoi, hay tac dong vao Bo GD&DT de cham dut viec day sai mon van, vi nhu phan ly luan van hoc tren day vay...

  • Tran Manh Hao

TP.HCM 10/6/2003

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Tìm hiểu: Tran Dinh Su, GSTS Tran Dinh Su, NXB Giao Duc, Ly luan van hoc, tac pham van hoc, khai niem co ban, duoc dinh nghia, khong phai la, su chi giao, noi dung, y nghia, cam hung, chung toi, hien tuong, doi song, nguoi
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