Nang cap o dia cung an toan cho he thong

Tags: True Image, Disk Clone, Silicon Image, Linux SWAP, Windows Updates, Linux Ext2, he dieu hanh Windows XP, dung luong luu tru, du lieu nguoi dung, ban sao chinh xac, o dia cung, bo dieu khien, trinh dieu khien, o dia dich, nhan ban, moi


Nang cap o dia cung an toan cho he thong

Neu ban muon nang cap dung luong luu tru, truy cap du lieu nhanh hon va co mot he thong yen tinh hon, bai viet nay co the giup ban.

Nho lai nhung nam dau thap ky 1990, nhieu nguoi chi co trong tay o dia cung voi dung luong 40MB. Vao thoi diem do, ly do duy nhat de ban nang cap o cung la tang dung luong luu tru. Va dung luong o dia lon nhat ma ban co the mua duoc chi la 540MB. Ngay nay, mot thanh nho USB nho be cung co dung luong gap vai lan con so do.

Do la 15 nam truoc. Hien tai, co nhieu ly do hon de ban quyet dinh nang cap o dia cung cho he thong cua minh. Voi cac cong nghe luu tru moi, chang han SATA, NCQ (Native Command Queuing), cung voi uu diem ve bo dem lon, boi tron bang chat long, co che chong soc va cham cung nhu cong nghe tang mat do luu tru tren mat dia, viec thay o dia cung khong chi con nham muc dich tang dung luong ma con nham dap ung yeu cau ve toc do va giam tieng on he thong.

Duoi day, chung ta se xem xet cac thu thuat va cach thuc de nang cap o dia cung, truyen cac du lieu sang o dia moi ma khong gay ra truc trac cho he thong.

Bat dau

Thong thuong, khi ban them hoac nang cap mot dia moi tot hon, o dia nay nen duoc cau hinh la o dia chinh C. Do la boi vi he dieu hanh se duoc cai dat tren o dia C.

Tuy nhien, nhieu khi moi nguoi lai khong lam nhu vay. Co mot ly do co ban xuat phat tu su phuc tap trong viec chuyen he dieu hanh (cung voi cac ung dung va cac du lieu nguoi dung) tu o dia nay sang o dia khac. Mot so ky thuat vien con cho rang cach nhanh nhat la thiet lap o dia moi thanh o phu (slave). Voi phan mem thich hop va cac ky nang can thiet, ban co the thay viec chuyen tat ca du lieu - bao gom ca OS - se tro nen don gian hon rat nhieu.

Hai phan mem pho bien nhat ma ban co the su dung cho cong viec nay la Norton Ghost 9.0 cua Symantec va True Image 8.0 cua Acronis.

Trong bai viet nay, chung ta su dung san pham cua Acronis. Day la mot phan mem de su dung, kha manh va co gia re hon cua Symantec. Acronis con cung cap ca ban thu nghiem mien phi co the tai tu website, cho phep nguoi dung danh gia truoc khi quyet dinh mua. True Image 8.0 cung rat hieu qua trong viec tao ra cac dia khoi dong va kha nang nhan biet bo dieu khien SATA.

Buoc dau tien la tao ra dia khoi dong co ban don gian (portable) cua True Image. Ban se thay Acronis ho tro nguoi dung rat tot: phan mem se tu dong thuc hien tac vu nay trong qua trinh cai dat.

Bai viet nay tap trung vao viec nhan ban o dia cung voi muc dich nang cap. Do do, chung ta nen tao mot ban “an toan” cua dia khoi dong - ban nay co dung luong chi phan nua ban “day du” (se hieu qua trong truong hop sao chep tu hoac toi o dia USB hoac SCSI). Viec tai cac trinh dieu khien (driver) khong can thiet se keo dai qua trinh tao dia khoi dong. Hon nua, lua chon “day du” se doi hoi dung luong lon hon va mat nhieu thoi gian thuc hien hon. Doi khi, ban co the gap phai van de ve tinh tuong thich.

Nhan ban o dia

Ban co the “nhan ban” bat cu o dia cung nao neu o dia dich co dung luong khong nho hon dung luong thuc te duoc su dung de luu tru du lieu o o dia goc. Lay vi du, neu ban co 20GB du lieu tren mot o dia 80GB, ban co the sao chep o dia do len bat cu dia cung nao co dung luong toi thieu 20GB.

Ngoai ra, hoan toan co the nhan ban giua cac o dia cua cac hang khac nhau; tu USB toi IDE; SATA toi IDE; SCSI toi PC Card hoac IEEE 1394 (Firewire). Ban cung de dang sao chep tu o dia cung laptop toi cac dang dia cung khac.

o dia dich khong nhat thiet phai duoc phan vung (partition) hoac dinh dang boi phan mem se lam dieu nay trong qua trinh nhan ban. Tuy nhien, tat ca cac du lieu trong o dich (neu co truoc khi nhan ban) se bi xoa. Sau khi nhan ban, o dich se la ban sao chinh xac cua dia goc; chi co the khac nhau o dung luong trong. Do do, truoc khi thuc hien, hay kiem tra o dia dich de dam bao rang ban da sao luu cac du lieu can thiet bang cach copy vao o dia khac hoac CD.

Ban cung nen can than khi chon dia nguon (dia goc). Neu ban vo tinh cau hinh sai, chang han dat o dich thanh o nguon va nguoc lai, ban se nhan duoc mot o dia dich bi xoa sach sau khi hoan thanh. Tat ca du lieu se bien mat!

True Image se nhan ban o dia cung voi moi dinh dang, FAT16/32, NTFS, Linux Ext2, Ext3, ReiserFS hoac he thong tep Linux SWAP. Phien ban 8.0 cung cho phep ban copy cac partition don le tu mot mang RAID toi mot o dia don, hoac tu mot mang RAID toi mot mang khac. Ban cung co the xay dung mot tep anh (image) khoi phuc va thuc hien viec copy sector-toi-sector voi nhung o dia bi hong. Tat nhien, day la nhung tinh nang se khong duoc de cap toi trong bai nay.

Bat tay vao viec

Dia cung moi khong nhat thiet phai duoc lap vao trong case may tinh. Chang han, khi thay mot o dia, ta co the don gian dat o dia do theo huong len tren (co nghia la mat ban mach se o phia tren) ben canh may tinh. Thao vo case may ra, sau do gan o dia moi vao mainboard bang cap noi va dat o dia do la o dia phu cho o dia cu se duoc thay the. Hoac ta cung co the thao cac o dia (neu co) tren bo dieu khien thu hai tren mainboard va su dung cap du lieu va cap nguon cua no cho o dia moi.

Ban phai luu y ve huong dat o dia. Muc dich cua viec nay la de dam bao khong co mot vat kim loai nao co the tiep xuc voi ban mach tren dia, dan den nguy co doan mach va gay hong hoan toan o cung. Hay dac biet can than, doi khi chinh chiec tuoc-no-vit ban dung lai la moi nguy hai.

Nhan ban IDE toi IDE

Truong hop don gian nhat la viec thay the hoac nang cap mot o dia IDE tren mot he thong co IDE san co. De lam dieu nay, khoi dong tu dia khoi phuc cua True Image, chon Disk Clone va chon o dia ban muon nhan ban. Duoi day la giao dien minh hoa khi ban khoi dong tu True Image va lua chon Disk Clone:

Tiep theo, chon o dia dich. Trong vong vai phut, hoac vai gio dong ho, tuy theo dung luong du lieu duoc nhan ban, ban se co mot ban sao chinh xac cua o dia cu cua ban.

IDE toi SATA

Nhan ban mot o dia IDE sang SATA, va nguoc lai, cung don gian nhu IDE toi IDE. Giua hai truong hop chi co mot su khac biet. Trong so cac bo dieu khien SATA tren thi truong, da phan duoc cung cap boi cang nha san xuat Silicon Image, VIA va Promise. Bo dieu khien cua Promise la mot bo dieu khien RAID, do do no khong duoc tu dong xac dinh boi True Image. Tuy nhien, theo thu nghiem thuc te, cac bo dieu khien cua VIA va Silicon Image deu co the nhan dien tu dong boi phan mem cua True Image.

Ban than he dieu hanh Windows XP khong tich hop trinh dieu khien SATA, khi ban muon khoi dong tu mot o dia cung SATA moi duoc nhan ban, Windows XP se khong duoc nap. Muon khac phuc, hay dam bao rang bo dieu khien SATA trong BIOS da duoc kich hoat va tai cac tep dieu khien cua no vao Windows truoc khi nhan ban. Neu ban quen khong thuc hien buoc nay, he thong se yeu cau cai dat sua chua (repair installation) Windows de ban co the khoi dong ma khong lam mat du lieu. Ban can phai co dia CD cai dat Windows XP va dia chua trinh dieu khien SATA (ban co the tim tren website cua cac nha san xuat mainboard). Khoi dong bang dia CD cai dat XP.

Ngay khi dia cai dat duoc tai, ban nhan phim F6 de cai dat trinh dieu khien SCSI hoac RAID cua hang thu ba. Lua chon nay chi xuat hien trong vong 20 giay, do vay hay nhanh tay. Sau khi nhan F6, co ve nhu khong gi khac biet, tuy nhien, hay kien nhan. Cuoi cung, mot thong diep tren man hinh yeu cau ban nhan phim S de tai trinh dieu khien cua hang thu ba. Nhan phim, dua dia cai dat driver SATA vao o dia mem va thuc hien theo huong dan tren man hinh.

Khi trinh cai dat Windows XP tai xong cac trinh dieu khien, ban se duoc hoi lua chon cai dat hoac sua Windows XP. Dieu quan trong can luu y la ban khong chon sua luc nay. Qua trinh cai dat Windows XP se cung cap mot lua chon sua chua thu hai, va do chinh la dieu chung ta can.

Tiep theo, nhan ENTER de chap nhan “Set up Windows XP now”. Sau do, nhan phim F8 de dong y voi noi dung ban quyen. Man hinh tiep theo se cho ban lua chon sua he dieu hanh. Sau khi chon, Windows se cai dat tren ban than no, giu nguyen du lieu nguoi dung va cac ung dung dang co.

Luu y: Khi ban thuc hien tac vu nay, ban se mat tat ca cac ban cap nhat cua Windows truoc do. Sau khi cai dat xong, dieu truoc tien nen lam la truy cap site Windows Updates, tai va cai dat tat ca cac ban cap nhat can thiet.

Nhan ban o dia cung may xach tay

De nang cap o dia cung may laptop, ban can phai co mot he thong may tinh de ban thong thuong. Da phan cac may xach tay chi ho tro lap dat mot o dia cung. Tuy nhien, chi can mot bo chuyen doi o dia (adapter) khong dat tien, nhu minh hoa duoi day, ban co the cam ca o dia moi va cu vao mot may de ban.

Sau khi lap dat, khoi dong tu dia True Image. Thuc hien viec nhan ban o dia nhu huong dan o tren, sau do lap o dia moi duoc nhan ban vao may xach tay. Do la tat ca nhung gi phai lam.

Tot nhat, ban nen kiem tra xem he thong co khoi dong va hoat dong binh thuong tren laptop hay khong, sau do moi van chat cac oc vit va hoan tat cong viec cua minh.

Gio day, ban da co trong tay mot he thong voi o dia cung moi ma khong phai cai dat lai he dieu hanh cung mot ta cac phan mem ung dung, va quan trong hon, tat ca cac du lieu cua ban van duoc bao ve tot.

(Theo TCBCVT& CNTT)

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Tìm hiểu: True Image, Disk Clone, Silicon Image, Linux SWAP, Windows Updates, Linux Ext2, he dieu hanh Windows XP, dung luong luu tru, du lieu nguoi dung, ban sao chinh xac, o dia cung, bo dieu khien, trinh dieu khien, o dia dich, nhan ban, moi

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