Thuc hien ke hoach thong qua marketing hon hop

Tags: doi thu canh tranh, thuc hien ke hoach, khach hang tiem nang, nha cung cap, nha xuat ban, kenh phan phoi, cac san pham, dich vu, ban hang, hon hop, cong ty, co the, thong qua, marketing, ban


Thuc hien ke hoach thong qua marketing hon hop
Ke hoach marketing bat dau bang viec xac dinh doi tuong khach hang tiem nang (se duoc de cap chi tiet hon o phan sau), sau do ap dung ly thuyet marketing hon hop (marketing mix) de tiep can voi doi tuong khach hang nay.

Ly thuyet nay do McCarthy xay dung, con duoc goi la quy tac 4P, bao gom: Product - Thiet ke va xay dung chien luoc san pham; Price - Chien luoc gia; Promotion - Xuc tien san pham va ho tro ban hang va Place - Thiet lap kenh phan phoi (xem hinh 2-1). Day la nhung cong cu ma ban co the su dung de theo duoi cac muc tieu cua minh trong thi truong ma ban nham den.

San pham

Phan trong tam cua ly thuyet marketing hon hop chinh la san pham (dich vu), nhung gi ma cong ty cung cap cho khach hang nhu may giat, xe hoi, vat dung trang tri noi that,… hoac chinh sach bao hiem nhan tho, dich vu Internet bang thong rong,… Su cung cap nay con bao gom cac khia canh vat chat, cung nhu cac yeu to truu tuong hon nhu bao hanh, phuong an chon lua va dich vu hau mai.

Ban co the phan biet cac san pham theo ly tinh hoac thong qua cac dich vu ma cong ty ban cung cap de ho tro san pham do. Nhung khac biet ly tinh cua san pham bao gom:

+ Hinh thuc - kich co, hinh dang, cau truc vat chat.

+ Cac dac diem - vi du: mot cong cu xu ly van ban moi.

+ Chat luong hieu suat - muc do ma cac dac tinh chinh cua san pham phat huy duoc.

+ Chat luong hoat dong - muc do ma tat ca cac don vi cua san pham deu hoat dong nhu nhau.

+ Tinh ben - tuoi tho hoat dong du kien cua san pham duoi cac dieu kien va ap luc tu nhien.

+ Do tin cay - kha nang san pham khong bi truc trac hay hu hong.

+ Kha nang sua chua - kha nang san pham co the sua chua neu bi hu hong.

+ Phong cach - an tuong va cam giac ve san pham.

+ Thiet ke - cach ma tat ca cac dac tinh neu tren phoi hop voi nhau (de su dung, dep mat, ben).

Ban cung co the phan biet san pham bang cac dac diem khac biet ve dich vu nhu sau:

+ De dat hang - muc do ma khach hang de dat mua san pham.

+ Giao hang - muc do giao san pham nhanh chong va chinh xac.

+ Lap dat - muc do thuc hien tot cong viec de lam cho san pham co the su dung tai noi chi dinh.

+ Huan luyen khach hang - bat cu thu gi cong ty cung cap de huan luyen khach hang su dung san pham.

+ Tu van khach hang - bat cu dieu gi cong ty tu van hay cac dich vu nghien cuu cho khach hang.

+ Bao duong va sua chua - muc do cong ty giup khach hang duy tri san pham hoat dong tot.

Trong thuc te, viec thiet ke mot san pham se dua tren su hieu biet sau sac ve nhung nhu cau, mong muon va kha nang san sang chi tra cua khach hang ket hop voi viec nghien cuu thi truong.

Phan phoi

Viec phan phoi de cap den dia diem ban hang va dua san pham hay dich vu den voi khach hang. Dia diem phan phoi co the la mot cua hang ban le, mot mang luoi phan phoi toan quoc, mot website thuong mai dien tu, hay mot catalog gui truc tiep den khach hang. Viec cung cap san pham den noi va vao thoi diem ma khach hang yeu cau la mot trong nhung khia canh quan trong nhat cua bat ky ke hoach marketing nao.

Chung ta hay xem thanh cong cua Amazon.com va Dell. Thong qua mot trang web tren Internet, Amazon.com da dem lai su tien loi cho khach hang bang cach cung cap dich vu giao sach va cac mat hang khac trong suot 24 gio mot ngay, 7 ngay trong tuan. Thay vi nguoi mua sach phai cat cong den hieu sach va chon mot cuon sach trong hang ngan cuon trung bay tren ke, thi Amazon.com da dua ra mot giai phap thay the giup ho tiet kiem thoi gian va tang kha nang chon lua san pham. Mac du khach hang cua Amazon.com da bo lo thu vui den hieu sach tim kiem va lat tung trang sach theo cach truyen thong, nhung he thong phan phoi qua mang cua Amazon.com lai dem den cho ho dieu ma cac hieu sach kho co the lam duoc - do la nhung y kien danh gia cua khach hang tren mang.

Hang may tinh Dell lai la vi du dien hinh khac ve su thanh cong trong viec thiet lap he thong phan phoi. Trong khi cac doi thu van lam theo phuong phap truyen thong la phan phoi thong qua cac cua hang ban le va cac dai ly, thi Dell da bo qua khau trung gian ma quyet dinh ban truc tiep cho khach hang. Chien luoc nay da dem lai cho cong ty the thuong phong so voi cac doi thu canh tranh trong cuoc chien kinh doanh may tinh ca nhan. Hon nua, dieu nay con cho phep Dell:

+ Nam bat thong tin khach hang. Nhung thong tin nay co the bi bo qua neu ap dung cac hinh thuc phan phoi khac.

+ Thuc hien co che san xuat theo don dat hang. Day la mot yeu to tao su khac biet trong mot linh vuc ma cac san pham canh tranh deu tuong tu nhu nhau.

+ Bao dam san pham luon co san.

Hau nhu cac cong ty deu co nhieu kenh phan phoi de giao dich voi khach hang. Kenh phan phoi cang nhieu, cang hieu qua thi co hoi ban hang cang lon. Hay xem vi du ve cach tan dung nhieu kenh phan phoi cua nha xuat ban bo sach "Cam nang kinh doanh Harvard" nay (hinh 2-2). Nha xuat ban se dung luc luong ban hang de tao ra nhung khong gian trung bay trong hieu sach va se ban thong qua Amazon.com. Luc luong ban hang nay cung se ban sach cho cac nha ban si sach, va so sach do se duoc cung cap cho cac nha sach doc lap. Ben canh do, nha xuat ban se ban truc tiep mot luong sach lon cho cac doanh nghiep va cau lac bo sach. Ngoai ra, bo phan phu trach ban quyen cung se ban ban quyen chuyen ngu bo sach nay cho nhung nha xuat ban khong dung tieng Anh tren khap the gioi. Cuoi cung, thong qua website thuong mai dien tu cua minh, nha xuat ban se ban truc tiep cho khach hang cuoi cung, de tranh nhung nguoi trung gian va phan chiet khau phai chi cho ho.

Co nhieu cach de dua san pham hay dich vu den voi khach hang. Mot cong ty theo dinh huong thi truong co the ap dung nhieu cach khac nhau de tien hanh cong viec ma khong gay mau thuan giua cac kenh phan phoi.

Cong ty ban su dung hinh thuc phan phoi nao trong cac ke hoach marketing cua minh? Lieu do co phai la phuong an toi uu de thu hut khach hang va tao ra doanh so, cung nhu loi nhuan ma ban mong doi? Hay xem xet can than, vi yeu to phan phoi nay se co suc tac dong manh me den cong tac marketing.

Gia ban

Gia ban la chi phi khach hang phai bo ra de doi lay san pham hay dich vu cua nha cung cap. Viec dinh gia trong mot moi truong canh tranh khong nhung vo cung quan trong ma con mang tinh thach thuc. Neu dat gia qua thap, nha cung cap se phai tang so luong ban tren don vi san pham theo chi phi de co loi nhuan. Neu dat gia qua cao, khach hang se dan chuyen sang doi thu canh tranh. Quyet dinh ve gia bao gom diem gia, gia niem yet, chiet khau, thoi ky thanh toan, v.v.

Trong cac thi truong tu do va canh tranh, viec dinh gia la trong tam cua hau het moi giao dich. Khi khach hang thay rang gia tri cua mot san pham tuong xung voi gia da dinh, khach hang se thuc hien ngay giao dich mua ban ma bo qua cac lua chon khac. Nhu vay, viec tang hay ha gia se dieu chinh so luong don vi san pham can ban. Dieu nay anh huong den vong doi san pham. Nha cung cap co the dinh gia cao hon khi san pham duoc nhin nhan la moi la, doc dao va khong co san pham thay the nao huu hieu bang. Nhung o giai doan chin muoi cua vong doi san pham, nha cung cap thuong giam gia thanh vi cac san pham thay the va doi thu canh tranh xuat hien ngay cang nhieu.

Nhin chung, nha cung cap se linh hoat hon trong viec dinh gia khi san pham hay dich vu cua ho co tinh doc dao, chang han nhu mot cay dan ghita san xuat theo don dat hang hay mot chiec xe hoi the thao MG doi 1962 da duoc phuc hoi. Doi voi nhung san pham thong dung hay pho bien, su linh hoat se kem hon vi khach hang da co nhieu su chon lua va so sanh. Neu nha cung cap dinh gia cao hon thi truong chung, viec ban hang se tro nen kho khan, con neu ho ha gia qua thap thi so luong hang ban tam thoi tang len, nhung se chung lai khi cac doi thu canh tranh cung ha gia.

Mot so nha cung cap da thanh cong trong viec duy tri gia thanh cao bang cach bo sung cho cac san pham rat binh thuong cua ho nhung uu diem ve su doc dao, chat luong hay su moi la. Phuong phap nay dac biet pho bien trong nganh cong nghiep my pham.

Du cong ty ban dinh gia san pham hay dich vu o muc do nao, thi gia do cung la mot yeu to quan trong trong marketing hon hop va se co tac dong den ket qua kinh doanh. Ban co the dat gia cho bat ky muc tieu nao sau day: tang so hang ban theo don vi san pham, tang loi nhuan, hay tang thi phan; danh bai doi thu canh tranh; hoac ngan khong cho doi thu canh tranh xam pham lanh dia cua ban. Nhung san pham moi luon duoc thiet ke theo cac muc tieu ve gia cu the nhu the nay.

Ho tro ban hang

Day la yeu to cuoi cung, nhung cung la yeu to kho mo ta nhat trong marketing hon hop. Ho tro ban hang la tat ca cac hoat dong nham dam bao rang khach hang nhan biet ve san pham hay dich vu cua ban, co an tuong tot ve chung va thuc hien giao dich mua ban that su. Nhung hoat dong nay bao gom quang cao, catalog, quan he cong chung va ban le, cu the la quang cao tren truyen hinh, dai phat thanh, bao chi, cac bang thong bao, dua san pham vao phim anh, tai tro cho cac chuong trinh truyen hinh va cac kenh phat thanh duoc dong dao cong chung theo doi, tai tro cho cac chuong trinh danh cho khach hang than thiet, ban hang qua dien thoai, ban hang qua thu truc tiep, gioi thieu san pham tan nha, goi catalog cho khach hang, quan he cong chung v.v.

Co rat nhieu hinh thuc xuc tien san pham va ho tro ban hang nen rat kho de cap tat ca trong khuon kho cuon sach nay. Ban chi can xac dinh rang: cung voi nghien cuu thi truong, viec xuc tien san pham va ho tro ban hang chinh la mat xich truyen thong quan trong giua cong ty ban va khach hang ma ban nham den.

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Thuc hien ke hoach thong qua marketing hon hop
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