Su menh cua tieu thuyet

Tags: Tiep Khac, Milan Kundera, xa hoi chu nghia, chu nghia hien thuc, Chu nghia toan tri, nha tieu thuyet, khong phai la, he tu tuong, cau tra loi, nghe thuat, Cua ong, van hoc, tat ca, doi voi, con nguoi, cuon


Tieu thuyet, theo Kundera, the hien trong minh “tinh than cua phuc tap”, “hien minh cua hoai nghi”, no khong di tim cac cau tra loi ma dat ra cac cau hoi, no nghien cuu “khong phai hien thuc ma hien sinh”, nghien cuu chinh ngay ban chat su ton tai cua con nguoi...

* *

tieu luan cua Svetlana Zherlaimova (Nga)

Su menh cua tieu thuyet

Milan Kundera (s. 1929)

Neu tin theo cac nha phe binh, san pham nghe thuat hien dai duoc chia thanh van hoa dai chung, nhung oc dao nho cua chu nghia truyen thong da gia cu khong the nao cuong lai duoc va chu nghia hau hien dai. Doi voi phan dong cac tac gia, cai sau cung la cau tra loi tuong xung cho cac yeu cau cua thoi gian, la su phan anh chinh ban chat cua thoi dai chung ta dang song qua. Neu khoang hai muoi nam truoc nguoi ta khong ngot tranh luan ve de tai “chu nghia hien thuc xa hoi chu nghia la gi”, thi bay gio trong tat ca cac an pham co lien quan den van hoc, tai tat ca cac hoi nghi khoa hoc, moi cau chuyen lai xoay quanh chu nghia hau hien dai la gi. Trong khi do van hoc va tu tuong my hoc van dong len truoc khong chi theo duong ray cua nhung quan niem pho quat duoc thua nhan rong rai (tinh cho den thoi diem nay). Mot trong nhung hien tuong doc dao dang duoc chu y het suc nghiem tuc trong van hoc chau Au hien dai, co the noi mot cach chac chan, do la cac tieu thuyet va tieu luan ve tieu thuyet cua Milan Kundera.

Thuc te la tat ca nhung gi ong viet ra, ke tu nhung tap tho dau tien xuat ban vao nhung nam 50, deu thu hut su chu y cua doc gia va lam day len nhung cuoc tranh cai phe binh, mac du nhin chung tho cua ong, cung nhu vo kich “Nguoi giu nguon nuoc” (1962) tung gay tieng vang, van nam trong khuon kho nhung quan niem von co hoi ay ve van hoc xa hoi chu nghia, con nhung xung dot tinh yeu tung duoc coi la manh bao trong tap tho “Doc thoai” (1957) den hom nay cam thay la thuong. Nhung tan trong tinh cach va tai nang cua Kundera ngay tu dau da co tinh phi chuan muc, tinh luan chien, chung se duoc boc lo day du trong van xuoi va cac bai luan ly thuyet cua ong.


Hien tuong Kundera


Nha van khong cho phep in lai hien nay nhung sach ong viet ra truoc tieu thuyet “Chuyen dua” (1967): “Trong so nhung sach toi da viet ra, cai duy nhat toi coi trong, do la cac tieu thuyet “. Ngoai cac tieu thuyet ra, ong con xep vao day “bien the phong tac” cua minh ve de tai tac pham “Jacques, anh chang theo thuyet dinh menh” cua Diderot duoi dang vo kich “Jacques va ong chu. Tuong nho Denis Diderot” (1970), tap truyen ngan “Nhung chuyen tinh vui nhon” (1970) va hai tap tieu luan ly thuyet “Nghe thuat tieu thuyet” (1986), “Nhung di chuc bi phan boi” (1993).


Ngay bai phat bieu dau tien cua Kundera ve cac van de cua ly luan van hoc da gay tieng vang lon trong xa hoi Czech. Nam 1955 trong bai viet “Quanh nhung cuoc ban cai ve di san” ong da hang hai ung ho mot cach day thuyet phuc Vitezslav Nezval, nguoi da tung tuyen bo se khong co tho the ky XX neu thieu Guillaume Apollinaire.

Do la su mo dau vang doi cua viec khoi phuc lai dong tho tien phong chu nghia ma o Czech no da bi rut phep thong cong vi su toan thang cua chu nghia hien thuc xa hoi chu nghia. Nhung viec bao ve phai tien phong khong phai la de tai duy nhat trong bai viet cua Kundera. Ong khang dinh rang trong van hoc the gioi co cho cho moi khuynh huong khac nhau. Kundera khong di theo su phan chia tho ra thanh tho truyen thong va tho tien phong, ong co cac tieu chi phan loai khac. Thu tho gan gui nhat voi minh ong goi la “tho ca cua cuoc song tran the “: Rimbaud - Apollinaire - cac nha vi lai Nga - Nezval thoi tre. Nhung ong cung thua nhan cac dai dien cua thu tho “triet hoc tu tuong” ma ong xep vao do Mallarme - Valery - Rilke - Pasternak - Holland (Holan?), thua nhan thu tho chinh tri bac cao. Luan diem chinh trong quan niem cua ong la can phai tren co so nhung thanh tuu da co tien toi su tong hop: “... nghe thuat cua chung ta dang dan dan buoc vao mot thoi dai lich su ruc ro cua chu nghia hien thuc co dien moi”. Sau nay Kundera se rut ra ket luan ve tac dong nguy hai cua thu tho chinh tri doi voi xa hoi, se co nhan xet tieu cuc ve tho “tru tinh”, se tay han khoi von tu cua minh khai niem “chu nghia hien thuc”, nhung van giu lai va cung co cai nhin bao quat ve he van de van hoc, su choi bo cac so do nghien cuu van hoc thong dung, khat vong thuong xuyen tim den mot hinh thuc moi thu nap vao minh tat ca nhung gi tot nhat da co.


Vao nhung nam do Kundera bat dau giang day van hoc the gioi o Vien Han Lam dien anh Praha, noi trong so cac thinh gia cua ong co nha dao dien noi tieng sau nay Milos Forman. Gan voi hoat dong giang day nay la cuon chuyen luan cua Kundera “Nghe thuat tieu thuyet. Con duong cua Vladislav Vanchura di den su thi lon” (1960) thong qua su doi chieu cuon tieu thuyet co vua “Anh tho banh mi Jan Margoul” cua nha van lon thuoc phai tien phong Czech voi kieu tieu thuyet Balzac de neu len qua trinh tien trien cua the loai tieu thuyet - tu phac hoa chan dung xa hoi den phan anh con nguoi rieng re.


Tren dat nuoc Tiep Khac day len phong trao dau tranh vi dan chu, vi mot thu “chu nghia xa hoi mang khuon mat nguoi”, phong trao ve sau duoc goi bang cai ten an du la “mua xuan Praha”. Kundera tro thanh mot trong nhung nhan vat hang dau cua canh van hoc trong phong trao nay, co chan trong ban lanh dao Hoi nha van Tiep Khac.

Xa hoi Tiep Khac xon xao khi xuat hien tieu thuyet “Chuyen dua” cua Kundera voi noi dung danh gia lai mot cach mia mai “thoi ky xay dung co so cua chu nghia xa hoi” va bai phat bieu cua ong tai dai hoi nha van lan thu IV (1967), mot dai hoi co y nghia trong dai dang nho trong cao trao cua phong trao dan chu, trong do ong khang dinh rang “dau tien la su chiem dong, sau do la chu nghia Stalin “ da ha thap van hoc Czech xuong muc mot thu “chu nghia tuyen truyen trong rong “, rang su phon vinh cua dan toc nhat thiet phai phu thuoc vao cao trao van hoa duoc khoi len tu nhung nam 60. Nam 1968 danh tieng nha van bat dau lan khap chau Au: “Chuyen dua” duoc dich ra tieng Phap voi loi cua L.Aragon: “Day la cuon tieu thuyet toi cho la tuyet voi“, nam 1969 ban dich tieng Anh dau tien cua tac pham nay xuat hien, v.v.


Cuoc do bo bang xe tang cua quan doi Xo viet vao Tiep Khac ngay 21 thang Tam 1968 duoc Kundera xem nhu mot don danh nang ne chu khong phai la su that bai cua mua xuan Praha. Ong cho rang thanh cong lon cua dan toc la trong vong nua nam o Tiep Khac dang cong san dung dau la Aleksandr Dubseck van duy tri duoc su lanh dao nhu truoc, bao chi doi lap tap trung len an “quan chiem dong“, con cac xe tang xo viet tu cac duong pho va lang mac bi don vao cac doanh trai biet lap. Trong so ra dip Giang Sinh cua tuan bao “Nhung chiec la” cua Hoi nha van Tiep Khac, Kundera da viet mot bai ca ngoi tinh than bat khuat cua dan toc Czech: “Co niem tu hao cua nhung dan toc huenh hoang voi nhung cuoc hanh binh cua cac Napoleon va Suvorov cua minh, nhung cung co niem tu hao cua nhung dan toc khong bao gio xuat khau nhung Suvorov hung bao” - va bay to hy vong vao su kien cuong cua nhan dan Czech co hoc thuc va biet suy nghi... Nha viet kich tre noi tieng hoi ay la Vaclav Havel da len tieng phan doi lai Kundera, ong keu goi “dung suoi am nhau bang nhung hoi uc ve cac thanh cong trong qua khu”, dung ban luan dai dong ma hay bat tay vao nhung cong viec cu the de to chuc su phan khang.


Y kien cua Havel ve nhung moi hiem hoa va su can thiet phai dau tranh khi do, Kundera thay co ve nhu la mot su pho truong, mot thu chu nghia cap tien vo can cu, nhung cuoc trao doi quan diem sau do giua hai nguoi voi nhau, ma nhung tieng vong cua no den nay van con co the nhan thay trong cac tieu thuyet cua Kundera, da bi gian doan do su thay doi dot ngot cua tinh hinh dat nuoc. Thang Tu 1969 G.Husak len nam quyen lanh dao Dang cong san Tiep Khac va thoi ky “quy pham hoa” bat dau: siet chat bao chi, thanh dang, dan ap nhung nguoi khac chinh kien. Kundera bi khai tru khoi dang, mat viec lam, bi cam in an, cac sach cua ong bi loai ra khoi thu vien. Cac tieu thuyet moi cua nha van - “Cuoc song khong phai o noi day”, va “Dieu van gia tu”, cung nhu nhung cuon sau nay viet o nuoc ngoai “Sach cuoi va lang quen”, “Nhe kiep nhan sinh” v.v. - thoat dau xuat ban qua ban dich tieng Phap, chi sau do moi duoc in bang tieng Czech tai mot nha xuat ban luu vong o Toronto.


Trong mot lan sang Phap giang bai Kundera bi tuoc quoc tich Tiep Khac, danh phai song luu vong. Sau “cuoc cach mang bang nhung” nam 1989 ong khong tro ve nuoc. “Thang Muoi Mot 1989 - ong thu nhan - toi cam thay trao dang niem vui suong khi su chiem dong da cham dut, nhung dong thoi cung lai buon ba: doi voi toi cuoc chuyen bien nay dien ra qua muon, toi khong con du suc de thay doi que huong mot lan nua”.

Cuon tieu thuyet gan day nhat cua ong “Cham rai” (1995) va cac sach tieu luan ly thuyet ong viet bang tieng Phap.


Nha nghien cuu nguoi Czech K.Hvatik da co nhan xet dung dan: “Cai che do muon bat Milan Kundera im tieng, nguoc doi sao, lai da tang cho van hoc chau Au mot trong nhung nha tieu thuyet lon nhat the ky XX”. Chung ta co the noi them: khong chi cho van hoc chau Au. Cac ban dich tieu thuyet cua Kundera thuoc vao danh muc cac sach ban chay va duoc trao nhieu giai thuong uy tin khong chi o cac nuoc Tay Au, ma con o My - o day da co bon tap chuyen khao va mot tap bai viet ve sang tac cua ong, mot bo phim quay theo cuon “Nhe kiep nhan sinh” co tieng vang lon (nha van cho bo phim do khong thanh cong va tu bo no, nhung hien nhien la bo phim da gop phan them cho danh tieng cua ong). Cac sach cua Kundera con duoc dich ra tieng Nhat Ban, Trung Quoc, Trieu Tien va cac thu tieng chau A khac.


Tat ca cac tieu thuyet cua Kundera deu mang dam khuynh huong chong chu nghia toan tri theo kieu Stalin, nhu no tung ton tai o Tiep Khac nhung nam 50, va theo kieu “quy pham hoa” cua Husak - chung phe phan gay gat Lien Xo, che do xo viet va hoc thuyet xa hoi chu nghia. Nhung, tat nhien, khong the ly giai su thanh cong cua chung bang vao quan diem chinh tri nhu the, loai quan diem rat tieu bieu cho phan lon tac pham cua thu van hoc ly khai va luu vong. Co biet bao tac pham “van xuoi soi suc” mang tinh to cao xuat hien vao nhung nam 70 -80, den nay da hoan toan bi quen lang! Cac sach cua Kundera co nhieu chat khieu dam, nhung den nay con ai ngac nhien ve dieu do? Thuc chat la o cho cac cuon tieu thuyet co dong cua Kundera, moi cuon deu dang duoc phan tich can ke, mang lai cho doc gia mot cai nhin doc dao ve the gioi hien dai va vi tri cua con nguoi trong do, mot thu triet hoc rieng ve cuoc song va cac quan he lien ca nhan. Trong chung chu de sac sao va cac tinh cach con nguoi sinh dong duoc ket hop voi nhung suy tu ve cac de tai triet hoc va hien sinh mang tinh toan cau, con nhung bai tieu luan ly thuyet cua ong duoc viet bang mot van phong khong kem phan hap dan va dac sac so voi cac tac pham nghe thuat.


Can cu vao nhung bai viet cua nha van duoc tap hop trong hai cuon “Nghe thuat tieu thuyet’ va “Nhung di chuc bi phan boi”, vao cac cuoc phong van cua ong, vao nhung loi ong binh chu cac tac pham cua minh va nhung suy nghi cua tac gia gai dat trong cac van ban tieu thuyet, co the noi ve mot ly thuyet tieu thuyet doc dao nhu la mot tieng noi moi trong su phat trien cua tu tuong my hoc hien dai.


Ve tieu thuyet chau Au


Tieu thuyet doi voi Kundera - do la tieu thuyet chau Au, o day thuat ngu “chau Au”, cung nhu o Husserl, mang noi dung tinh than chu khong phai dia ly, no chi su thuoc ve mot kieu van minh nhat dinh. Lich su tieu thuyet nay ong dan tu Cervantes, den Diderot ma ong dac biet kinh trong, Balzac, Flaubert, Tolstoi, Joyce, con trong the ky XX ong tach rieng ra “truyen thong Tay Au” duoc dai dien boi nhung ten tuoi Kafka, Hasek, Broch, Musil, Gombrowicz. Hat nhan quan niem nay la o cho Kundera xem tieu thuyet khong phai nhu mot trong cac the loai van hoc giua cac the loai khac, ma nhu mot kieu phuong phap phuc hop nhan thuc cuoc song dua lai nhung ket qua dang tin cay hon cac nghien cuu khoa hoc, co kha nang vuot len truoc chung: “Tieu thuyet biet den tiem thuc som hon Freud, biet den dau tranh giai cap som hon Marx, nghien cuu hien tuong hoc som hon cac nha hien tuong hoc”.


Khai quat kinh nghiem tich cuc cua cac nha van ke tren, cung nhu cua T.Mann, E.Hemingway va mot so nguoi khac, khuoc tu kinh nghiem tieu cuc cua su phat trien van hoc trong hoan canh doc tai tu tuong nghiet nga, cung nhu tiep tuc suy xet nhung bai hoc tu sang tac cua chinh minh, Kundera neu len nhung yeu cau ma tieu thuyet can phai dap ung de co kha nang hoan thanh duoc su menh cao ca cua minh. Tieu thuyet, theo Kundera, the hien trong minh “tinh than cua phuc tap”, “hien minh cua hoai nghi”, no khong di tim cac cau tra loi ma dat ra cac cau hoi, no nghien cuu “khong phai hien thuc ma hien sinh”, nghien cuu chinh ngay ban chat su ton tai cua con nguoi. Kundera khong the thoa man voi quan niem ve tieu thuyet nhu ve su phan anh hien thuc, doi voi ong do truoc het la “su tong hop tri tue lon”, tu do thu nhan vao minh nhung suy tu ve bat ky de tai nao: “Khong cai gi co the dua ra suy luan ma lai bi loai ra khoi nghe thuat tieu thuyet”. Do khong phai la nhung doan tieu luan ngoai de, ma la tu tuong tieu thuyet mang tinh dong luc chung bao trum tat ca, no gan gui voi tu tuong triet hoc thuc nghiem cua Nietzsche: “Neu nhu toi la nguoi ung ho su co mat tri tue trong tieu thuyet, dieu do khong co nghia la toi thien cam voi cai goi la “tieu thuyet triet hoc”, trong do tieu thuyet theo dung nghia cua no bi phu thuoc vao triet hoc, tu su - phu thuoc vao cac tu tuong chinh tri va dao duc. Tu tuong tieu thuyet dich thuc (tieu thuyet sau Rabelaire da biet den no) bao gio cung mang tinh phi he thong, vo ky luat, no giong nhu tu tuong cua Nietzsche mang tinh thuc nghiem, tat ca cac he thong tu tuong hien co deu thong tiep duoc voi no, no nghien cuu (thong qua trung gian cac nhan vat) tat ca cac cach thuc tu duy khi co di den tan cot loi moi cach thuc do”.


“Thong qua trung gian cac nhan vat” nghia la gi? Cau tra loi cho cau hoi nay - ca tren cap do thuc tien nghe thuat, ca tren cap do cong thuc - co the tim thay trong cuon tieu thuyet noi tieng nhat cua Kundera “Nhe kiep nhan sinh”. Tien de triet hoc xuat phat diem cua no duoc bieu hien bang cau cach ngon: “Einmal ist Keinmal” (“Mot lan - do khong phai la mot lan”, tieng Duc), boi vi cuoc song con nguoi la duy nhat va khong lap lai. “Doi nguoi dien ra chi mot lan, vi the chung ta khong bao gio co the xac dinh duoc trong cac quyet dinh cua chung ta cai nao dung, cai nao sai. Trong hoan canh do chung ta chi co the quyet dinh duoc mot lan duy nhat, va chung ta khong con co cuoc doi thu hai, thu ba, thu tu de ma co kha nang doi chieu cac quyet dinh da dua ra”. Kha nang nhu the khong don gian ma tinh duoc. Nhung cuon tieu thuyet, ma nhan vat trong do la mot dang “cai toi thuc nghiem” cua tac gia, duong nhu cho thay nhan tien ket qua cua nhung quyet dinh da dua ra. “Cac nhan vat cuon tieu thuyet cua toi - do la nhung kha nang rieng cua toi ma khong thuc hien duoc. Vi the toi yeu men tat ca chung nhu nhau va cung kinh so tat ca chung nhu nhau, moi cai trong so do da buoc qua gioi han ma ban than toi chi dam di vong qua. Chinh cai gioi han pham toi nay (gioi han ma dang sau do cai “toi” cua toi ket thuc) da loi cuon toi. Chi o phia sau no moi bat dau nhung su bi an ma tieu thuyet can phai do hoi. Tieu thuyet - khong phai la mot thu ton giao cua tac gia, ma la su nghien cuu cuoc song trong cai cam bay do the gioi bien thanh”. Loi thu nhan nay nha van co the lap lai cho moi cuon tieu thuyet cua minh.


Dieu lam Kundera ban khoan la doc gia hien dai thich doc cac sach viet ve nhung chuyen don dai trong cuoc doi cac nha van noi tieng, chu khong phai la cac tac pham cua ho. Theo y ong, trong tieu thuyet - “thu van xuoi tong hop lon dua tren tro choi voi cac nhan vat hu cau” - tac gia, khi dua ra nhung doi hoi, nhung quyet dinh co the hay khong the cua minh de thu thach cac nhan vat do, to ra tu do va coi mo hon rat nhieu so voi qua thu tu, nhat ky, hoi uc. “Tro choi voi cac nhan vat hu cau” khong nham muc dich dat den su giong nhu that, nhung cung khong mau thuan voi nhung su tim kiem chan ly, nguoc lai, no ket hop voi nhung suy ngam tao thanh co so cua su nghien cuu tieu thuyet doi voi cuoc song.


Cach thuc suy luan theo loi tieu thuyet doi hoi su tiep nhan theo loi tieu thuyet tu phia doc gia. “Chi co mot cach hieu cac tieu thuyet cua Kafka. Doc chung nhu cac tieu thuyet. Dung tim cach xem nhan vat K. la chan dung cua tac gia, con nhung loi cua K. la buc thong diep bi mat duoc ma hoa, ma hay cham chu doi theo hanh vi cua cac nhan vat, cac y do va tu tuong cua chung, co hinh dung tat ca moi viec nhu dang dien ra truoc mat anh”.


Cai cuoi ac quy va thien than


Kundera danh mot vai tro het suc quan trong cho su mia mai khi ong doi lap cai cuoi “ac quy” mang tinh tra van, khieu khich va do do dua toi nhan thuc, voi cai cuoi “thien than” mang tinh phu hoa, tan duong, dan den su cam nhan sai lech ve the gioi. Von la nguoi bat dau van nghiep cua minh nhu nha tho cua thoi xa hoi chu nghia, bay gio ong het suc phe phan loi “tru tinh”, coi do nhu su the hien cua “cai cuoi thien than” khac biet voi loi su thi mia mai ma su che nhao “ac quy” cua no khong cho phep cac chan ly da duoc tim ra bi troi vao quen lang. Trong tieu thuyet “Cuoc song khong phai o noi day” ong nhao bang cai cach cam thu tru tinh doi voi the gioi nhu la mot loi thich nghi dien ro, cung chung mot duoc voi cac trai tap trung kho sai (Gulag). Noi ve Tiep Khac trong khoang giao thoi giua hai thap nien 40 va 50, khi dien ra nhung vu an dam mau chong lai “ke thu cua nhan dan” nhung dong thoi cung co vo so tap tho do day ho hoi lac quan duoc xuat ban va co tieng vang, ong viet trong tac pham tren: “Buc tuong ma phia sau do nhung nguoi bi bat phai chiu cuc hinh duoc xay bang nhung cau tho, quanh buc tuong do nguoi ta nhay mua”. Con trong sach “Nhung di chuc bi phan boi” ong khang dinh: “Doi voi cuoc cach mang Nga thien tai cua Maiakovski cung toi can thiet nhu canh sat cua Zerginski”.


Trong tieu thuyet cua Kundera co nhieu khieu dam. Mot so nha diem sach co xu huong cho do la su chieu theo thi hieu cua doc gia dai chung. Con ban than tac gia thi nhat quyet cho rang khieu dam la mot thanh phan tat yeu cua su suy xet triet hoc doi voi the gioi. K.Hvatik, nha nghien cuu tinh te da noi o tren, chuyen gia ve Kundera, dong y voi cach dat van de nhu vay, ong viet ve cuon “Nhe kiep nhan sinh”: “De tai tinh yeu trong tieu thuyet cua Kundera tro thanh tam guong phe phan thoi dai cuoi the ky, thoi dai cua su hoai nghi va su lua doi tap the, cua su thao tung con nguoi va tu tuong”.


Kundera xac lap cac yeu cau doi voi cac hinh thuc moi trong nghe thuat nhu sau: “(1) vut bo triet de tat ca nhung cai gi khong quan trong - de nam bat lay su phuc tap cua hien sinh trong the gioi hien dai, ma van khong lam mat di su ro rang cua thuat kien truc; (2) “su doi am tieu thuyet” - de thong nhat triet hoc, tu su va tuong tuong thanh mot dong chay am nhac duy nhat; (3) loi tieu luan dac thu cua tieu thuyet - noi cach khac: thay vi neu len nhung cau cham ngon mang tinh tat yeu, hay noi nhung loi gia dinh, vui nhon hoac mia mai”. Theo niem tin chac cua ong, tieu thuyet kieu moi hau nhu se tu dong mang theo minh van de phuc dieu. Ong nhan di nhan lai ban chat tra van cua tieu thuyet, kha nang hoai nghi tat ca cua no. Chinh dua vao do, theo Kundera, nha tieu thuyet moi co kha nang tien sat den viec kham pha ra dieu bi an duy nhat ma han phai quan tam, - “dieu bi an cua hien sinh ma chi han va nghe thuat tieu thuyet cua han moi kham pha ra duoc”.


Su trung hop mot so diem trong cac quan niem cua Kundera voi ly thuyet cua Bakhtin da duoc cac nha nghien cuu chi ra, nhung toi khong dam qua quyet noi thang ve anh huong cua nha bac hoc Nga. Day co the la su trung hop thuan tuy “loai hinh”: boi Kundera trong cac cau truc ly thuyet tieu thuyet cua minh, khac voi Bakhtin, dua phan nhieu vao cac quan diem my hoc cua cac nhac si tien phong chu nghia the ky XX. Kundera thuong nhac di nhac lai rang ong viet ve tieu thuyet voi tu cach nha thuc hanh chu khong phai nha ly thuyet. Dieu quan trong doi voi ong la xac dinh vi tri cua minh trong hang ngu cac nha tieu thuyet, chu khong phai cac nha ly thuyet. Theo y toi, dong vai tro lon o day la su ac cam cua nha van doi voi loi lam ra ve han lam khoa hoc, voi nhung tro tap luyen ngon tu truu tuong quanh cac de tai van hoc, tach khoi qua trinh phat trien song dong cua no.


Trong sach “Nhung di chuc bi phan boi” Kundera ke mot cau chuyen theo quan diem cua ong la buon cuoi, nhung lai co y nghia tieu bieu doi voi tinh trang hien thoi cua tu tuong phe binh van hoc, chuyen do xay ra do doc khong dung mot tinh tiet trong cuon tieu thuyet “Sach cuoi va lang quen”: “Sau Joyce chung ta da biet rang su phieu luu lon nhat trong cuoc song chung ta - do la khong co su phieu luu nao ca... Chang Odysee cua Homer da chuyen cho vao ben trong con nguoi”. Cac nha phe binh coi cau noi do la tin dieu cua Kundera, than phuc su quan sat tinh te va sau sac cua ong. Ban than Kundera da goi bai noi cua mot giao su la “su triet ly hao dan don” va viet them: “Vao nhung nam bay muoi toi thuong nghe thay quanh minh tro ba hoa hon hop do, no duoc may lai tu nhung doan cat cua cau truc luan va tam phan hoc”. Cung do nhung nguyen nhan do nen Kundera khong hao hung gi voi nhung cuoc tranh luan ve chu nghia hau hien dai. Nha van kien quyet chong lai viec liet ong vao hang cac nha hau hien dai, mac du trong cac tac pham cua ong thuc te co the de dang nhan thay tat ca cac thu phap gan voi thuat ngu nay.


Tieu thuyet hoc


Khi xay dung quan niem tieu thuyet cua minh, Kundera khong quan tam den cac so do nghien cuu van hoc da duoc thua nhan. Ong rat than nhien doi chieu, chang han, “Vu an” cua Kafka va “Chien tranh va hoa binh” cua Tolstoi, ca hai cuon doi voi ong hoan toan khong phai the hien su doi lap “chu nghia hien thuc - chu nghia hien dai”, ma la deu thuoc ve nghe thuat tieu thuyet bac cao. Kundera chung minh rang moi mot cuon do da kham pha theo cach cua minh nhung tinh quy luat toan cau cua su sinh ton cua con nguoi va ca hai cuon deu co cam giac tho ca co huu. Chung ta can luu y rang khai niem “tho ca” o day khong phai la mot dinh nghia the loai, khong co gi chung voi loai “tru tinh” ma ong da nhac den va bac bo o tren - no tuong quan voi cac khai niem “tinh tho” va “ve dep”. Kundera viet rang “khong the di xa hon Kafka trong”Vu an”, noi ong da sang tao nen hinh tuong dac biet co tinh tho ve mot the gioi khong he tho mong chut nao”. Va tiep: “... nhung o cua so mo ra trong cuon tieu thuyet cua Kafka trong ra phong canh cua Tolstoi, ra cai the gioi ma ngay ca vao nhung thoi khac khung khiep nhat cac nhan vat van giu duoc quyen tu do quyet dinh, nho do mang lai cho cuoc song niem vui bat ngo - cai tao nen nguon tho”.


Kundera doi lap cac tieu thuyet cua Kafka va Tolstoi voi cac tac pham cua Dostoievski va Orwell, noi cai vuot troi khong phai la tho ca ma la he tu tuong. Theo y ong, “ban sac cac nhan vat cua Dostoievski la nam o he tu tuong ca nhan cua chung, he tu tuong nay truc tiep hay gian tiep quy dinh truoc hanh vi cua chung... nhung trong doi thuc lieu con nguoi co phai la su phong chieu cua he tu tuong cua minh khong?”. Ong cang thay kho chap nhan hon nua cac tieu thuyet cua Orwell khang dinh nhung tu tuong da duoc biet den tu truoc. Trong “Nghe thuat tieu thuyet” ong viet: “Cai Orwell noi voi chung ta thi cung co the noi duoc nhu the (tham chi con hay hon nhieu) qua tieu luan hay van da kich”. Trong “Nhung di chuc bi phan boi” ong khang dinh rang “su tien bo chinh tri” khong the bien ho cho su dinh kien tu tuong cua tac pham nghe thuat. Ve tieu thuyet “1984” ong viet: “Tac dong tieu cuc cua cuon tieu thuyet nay la o cho rut gon qua dang hien thuc chi ve phuong dien chinh trj cua no, con ban than phuong dien nay thi lai bi rut gon chi ve noi dung phu dinh cua no. Toi bac bo loi bien ho cho loai san pham nhu the bang cach cho rang no co the co ich ve mat tuyen truyen trong cuoc dau tranh chong lai chu nghia toan tri xau xa... Cuon tieu thuyet cua Orwell, bat chap y do cua ong ta, tu no da bien thanh cai mang tinh than chu nghia toan tri, tinh than tuyen truyen”.


Den day chung ta da di sat gan toi luan diem nen tang trong ly thuyet tieu thuyet cua Kundera the hien o su doi lap dut khoat voi tinh dinh san ve chinh tri va tu tuong cua nghe thuat thong qua cac quan niem my hoc chinh thong cua thoi dai xa hoi chu nghia va thu nhan vao minh kinh nghiem da duoc suy xet ve su tham gia cua ca nhan ong vao cac cuoc tranh luan va xung dot chinh tri, kinh nghiem ve nhung dam me, hy vong dan chu va nhung do vo cay dang ma ong da trai: thoat dau la vao kha nang cai cach chu nghia xa hoi, sau do la vao ban than he tu tuong. Ong di den ket luan rang nha tieu thuyet khong nen gan minh voi bat ky mot hoc thuyet nao du la ve chinh tri, tu tuong, ton giao hay tham chi dao duc. “Chinh kien la gi? - ong suy luan -. Do la tu tuong da bi dung lai, bi dong cung, “nguoi co chinh kien” do la con nguoi bi gioi han. Tu tuong thuc nghiem (ma tieu thuyet can phai xay len tren do - S.Sh) khong nham thuyet phuc, ma nham gay hung, danh thuc su phat trien cua tu tuong khac, lam cho tu tuong do chuyen dong: nha tieu thuyet chi don gian co bon phan phi he thong hoa mot cach he thong tu tuong cua minh, pha do nhung rao can ma ban than han dung len quanh TU TUONG cua minh”. Menh lenh tu tuong tat yeu se dan den cai chet cua tieu thuyet, dieu nay, theo y Kundera, da xay ra o Lien Xo thoi ky Stalin, noi chi co the xuat hien “nhung cuon tieu thuyet sau su cham dut lich su cua tieu thuyet”.


Trong mot cuoc phong van nguoi ta hoi Kundera: “Ong la nguoi cong san, thua ong Kundera? - Khong, toi la nha tieu thuyet. - Ong la phan tu ly khai? - Khong, toi la nha tieu thuyet. - Ong la ta hay huu? - Toi chang ta ma cung chang huu. Toi la nha tieu thuyet”.

Danh xung “nha tieu thuyet”, theo Kundera, can phai bieu dat mot muc do dac biet cua su tu do, su khach quan va su vo can. “Xa lanh cac chuan muc dao duc - ong quan niem -, do khong phai la su vo dao duc cua tieu thuyet, ma la dao duc cua no”. Co the phan doi rang su khach quan tuyet doi ma tac gia “Nghe thuat tieu thuyet” neu len noi chung la khong ton tai. Co the dung cach phan tich cac tieu thuyet cua ong de chung minh rang ban than ong cung khong du kha nang, nhu chinh ong da tuyen bo, yeu tat ca cac nhan vat nhu nhau, rang hien nhien la ong cung tim cach thuyet phuc doc gia ve mot cai gi do... Co le, cac cong thuc ong dua ra qua mang tinh cuc doan, nhung chung tham dam niem tin vao suc manh cua nghe thuat, vao viec van hoc cho den hien nay van co the mang lai rat nhieu cho con nguoi. Theo Kundera, cuon tieu thuyet co tinh tra van, mia mai, thoat khoi thien kien tu tuong co the giup dinh huong trong cai the gioi hien nay cua nhung su that bi bop meo va nhung tinh cam bi truong phinh. Neu nhu tru tinh voi cam hung thieu suy nghi chi lam cho tu tuong bi te liet di, thi tieu thuyet bang “su hien minh cua hoai nghi” se danh thuc tu tuong day, giup hieu ra su phuc tap khon cung cua cuoc song.


D.Godrova goi quan niem cua Kundera la “tieu thuyet hoc”. Qua thuc, ong gan cho tieu thuyet nhung kha nang hau nhu vo han. Nhung chung ta dung nen quen rang day la quan niem khong phai cua nha ly thuyet, ma cua nha thuc hanh “cong viec tieu thuyet”. Co nhien chang nen tin vao nhung loi thuyet phuc duoc nhac lai nhieu lan rang duong nhu ong khong he co y lap thuyet o day. Neu the thi ong cu cho ra het cuon nay den cuon khac ve ly thuyet tieu thuyet de lam gi! Nhung co mot dieu khac quan trong hon: khi thua nhan cho tieu thuyet nhung kha nang het suc rong lon nhan thuc “hien sinh”, khi khang dinh rang trong tinh trang khung hoang hien nay cua cac he thong tu tuong va triet hoc, cung nhu cua tat ca cac khoa hoc nhan van, tieu thuyet van con can thiet hon bao gio truoc day, nhu vay la Kundera voi tu cach nha thuc hanh, nha tieu thuyet da nhan ve minh nhung bon phan het suc cao ca. That vay, ong co trach nhiem rat cao doi voi cac van ban tieu thuyet cua minh, khong chi ve de tai, nhan vat, cot truyen, ma ca ve hinh thuc cung vay. Ong sua chua rat ky luong cau truc, su tuong thong giua cac phan cac chuong, vut bo tat ca nhung cai khong quan trong, vuon toi su chinh xac cua tung cau. Mac du ong khong thu nhan dieu nay, nhung theo toi cam thay, ong lang nghe nhan xet cua cac nha phe binh, cham chu theo doi cac ban dich tac pham cua minh va, trong nhung truong hop co the duoc ve mat ngon ngu, ong do soat lai gan nhu tung tu. Trong “Nghe thuat tieu thuyet” ong dua han vao ca mot tu dien nhung khai niem ong hay dung nhat (chuong “Sau muoi ba tu”), giai thich ti mi y nghia cua chung de cac dich gia khong hieu sai va khong chon nhung tu dong nghia thieu chinh xac voi co la “cho dep am tiet”. Le di nhien, co the nhan ra giua Kundera-nha ly thuyet va Kundera-nha thuc hanh co nhung mau thuan, nhung su phu thuoc lam phong phu lan nhau giua hai linh vuc hoat dong nay cua ong la dieu hoan toan ro rang.


Cach giai thich cua Kundera ve lich su tieu thuyet va vai tro cua no trong the gioi hien dai co nhieu dieu goi len y muon tranh luan. Da co nhieu nguoi, trong do co Iosif Brodski, len tieng phan doi su danh gia tieu cuc cua ong doi voi sang tac cua Dostoievski. Cung khong the chap nhan thai do phu dinh mot chieu cua ong doi voi “tru tinh”, mac du ong da nam bat rat tinh te cai xu huong tieu bieu cua cac che do toan tri la dua vao su cam thu the gioi mot cach nong nan hoi hot. Noi cho dung ra thi ban than Kundera da nhieu lan co nhan xet tot ve cac nha tho cu the; chang han ong lay lam kinh ngac truoc viec nhung ke hien nay lat do Maiakovski lai quen mat tho tru tinh tinh yeu va “nhung an du kho tuong tuong noi” cua ong ta. Kundera tin tuong sau sac rang loai tieu thuyet mang tinh tra van, hoai nghi la thu nghich huu co voi chu nghia toan tri, thu chu nghia nay khong can gi den viec nghien cuu cac van de cua cuoc song, ma chi can su tuyen truyen cho nhung “loi giai” da soan san. Nhung lieu co the tren co so nay noi ve cai chet cua tieu thuyet duoc chang? Khong phai tat ca cac nha tieu thuyet deu chiu lam cai “ban la tu tuong” (chu dung cua Solzhenitsyn). Ngay ca vao thoi ky toan tri van xuat hien nhung tac pham cua thu nghe thuat cao, tham chi neu nhu chung khong phai bao gio cung den duoc ngay voi doc gia. Mot thi du dien hinh - cuon tieu thuyet “Nghe nhan va Margarita” cua M.Bulgakov duoc hoan thanh trong nhung ngay am dam nhat duoi thoi Stalin, chang hieu sao cuon nay lai lot khoi mat Kundera. Cung nhu o Tiep Khac thoi “quy pham hoa” cua Husak van co nhung tieu thuyet xuat sac duoc viet ra, thi du “Anh chang nguoi Czech me ngu” cua L.Vatsulick hay “Toi da phuc vu hoang de Anh quoc nhu the nao” cua B.Hrabal, day la chua noi den cac sach cua chinh Kundera.


Danh han may chuong trong cac sach viet ve tieu thuyet de noi ve am nhac (“Ngau hung, tuong niem Stravinski”, “Nguoi chan ngay trong gia dinh minh” - ve di san cua Janasek), Kundera da hao hung mo ta thi phap cac tac pham cua minh bang cac thuat ngu am nhac, dung chung de xac dinh nhip dieu, thanh dieu, truong do cua cac phan rieng biet. Ong thich cau truc kieu “xonat”, thich “chien luoc bien tau kieu Beethoven”. Tieu thuyet trong quan niem cua ong la su thong nhat cac bien tau ve mot de tai (trong tieu thuyet, nhu ong tung nhan manh, chinh de tai la dac biet quan trong), ong cho so bay la con so ma thuat to chuc nen su hai hoa. Von tu nho da dam minh trong the gioi am nhac (ong la con trai cua mot nhac cong piano va giao vien day nhac, lai da tung hoc cach soan nhac) nen doi voi ong tat ca nhung cai do deu chat day y nghia, deu hien dien khi tao ra tac pham nhu mot “menh lenh am nhac”. Tuy nhien nhung “nut buoc” am nhac thang bang nay doi khi co ve la su tim toi co y, mac du khong the khong thua nhan rang ban than su co mat cua the gioi am nhac trong cac sach ve tieu thuyet da dua lai cho chung “dung luong van hoa hoc”.


La nguoi cho den tan gan day van viet bang tieng Czech, doi voi cong chung quoc te van con bi coi la nguoi “xu la”, nen Kundera rat quan tam den viec dich. Chang han, ong da co rieng mot bai viet phan tich viec dich mot cau cua Kafka ra cac thu tieng khac nhau. Nhung ngay bai viet do cung khong han noi ve viec dich, ma la noi ve dac thu cua nghe thuat tieu thuyet. Kundera khuyen: phai doc cac tieu thuyet that cham rai, cham chu; that ra lien do ong cung noi ngay rang kho ma tim duoc mot nguoi nao tren doi doc sach lai khong nhay coc tung trang. Nhung thuc chat la o cho can phai viet ra nhung cuon tieu thuyet dang de doc cham.

Tieu thuyet, theo Kundera, do la “nghe thuat mang tinh chau Au nhat trong tat ca cac nghe thuat”, neu - xin nhac lai - hieu chau Au o day “khong phai nhu lanh tho, ma nhu van hoa”. No co nhung pham chat “sieu ca nhan”, va “cac tieu thuyet vi dai bao gio cung mang nhieu tinh tri tue hon cac tac gia cua chung”, con hinh thuc trong nghe thuat do “bao gio cung lon hon chu khong chi la hinh thuc”.

*

Xa lanh chinh tri va he tu tuong, Kundera thuc chat tin tuong vao thien chuc xa hoi, nhan van cao ca cua nghe thuat tieu thuyet. Khi dua lai cho con nguoi su nhan thuc phu hop nhat ve y nghia cua sinh ton, no doi lap lai voi cac phuong tien thong tin dai chung, nhung cai khong de cho con nguoi duoc doi dien voi chinh minh, tuoc mat cua con nguoi ky uc lich su, de nen ca tinh cua con nguoi: “Cuoc song thuong xuyen bi ngon nuot boi cac “suc manh thoai hoa”, va cong viec cua nha van - do la nhung no luc Dong Kysot bao ve con nguoi khoi su thoai hoa, la khat vong tao ra mot the gioi tuong tuong nho be co su tuoi moi cua mot cau hoi bat ngo”. Vao mot thoi ky khung hoang, bat loi cho nghe thuat nhu hien nay, Kundera - voi tat ca suc manh logich, tam hoc van rong lon va tai nang van chuong - kien tri tu tuong ve vai tro dang tang len cua van hoc: “Neu qua that nhung bien co lon lao dang toi gan, toi khong biet co gi can thiet cap bach hon viec keo dai cuoc song cua van hoc va su doc lap hoan toan cua no. Trong truong hop nguoc lai, chung ta se bi nghien nat boi co may cua su tam thuong ve chinh tri va tu tuong, co may nay vao nhung thoi ky “bien co lon lao” thuong quay nhanh dang so”.


Ly thuyet tieu thuyet cua Kundera, tuong ung voi nhung su yeu thich cua ong, khong nham dua ra loi dap, ma la dat cau hoi. Duoc trinh bay voi doc gia theo loi cham ngon mia mai, no buoc phai hoai nghi cai da duoc chap nhan rong rai, no khieu khich, no goi mo tu tuong. Khong bat buoc, ma cung khong the dong y voi ong ve tat ca cac van de, con niem tin cua ong vao su menh cuu vot cua tieu thuyet co the ai do se coi la qua ao tuong. Nhung biet dau ong lai dung o dieu chinh yeu thi sao?


  • Ngan Xuyen dich tu nguyen ban tieng Nga, bao “Diem sach”,
    phu truong cua “Bao doc lap”, 21/08/1997.

Nguyen bai viet co nhan de Su menh cua tieu thuyet trong thoi dai cao chung cua van hoc -
Milan Kundera khong ta khong huu.
Chung toi sua lai nhan de.

Viet Bao

Tìm hiểu: Tiep Khac, Milan Kundera, xa hoi chu nghia, chu nghia hien thuc, Chu nghia toan tri, nha tieu thuyet, khong phai la, he tu tuong, cau tra loi, nghe thuat, Cua ong, van hoc, tat ca, doi voi, con nguoi, cuon

Xem Bản Tiếng Việt Có Dấu: Sứ mệnh của tiểu thuyết

Ban co the doc ban tieng Viet co dau cua bai viet Sứ mệnh của tiểu thuyết bang cach nhan chuot vao duong dan tren.

Lien he ve tin Su menh cua tieu thuyet

Nhan xet, hay lien he ve tin Su menh cua tieu thuyet co the gui bang duong dan o duoi. Ban nen gui kem tieu de bai viet Su menh cua tieu thuyet de lam tham khao. Bai viet nay thuoc chuyen de Chuyen de trong chuyen muc Van hoa.

Cac tin khac:

Xem tiep ... Chuyen de
Kenh Tin RSS Kenh Tin RSS | Du Bao Thoi Tiet | Lich Xem TV | Lien He - Contact | Quang Cao | Viec Lam | Dieu Kien Su Dung | Bao Ve Tinh Rieng Tu | Sitemap

Copyright©2008 VietBao.vn, Thu Vien Thong Tin Tong Hop Viet Nam va The Gioi, phien ban thu nghiem phan mem Viet Bao Viet Nam, beta 1.0