Huong dan on thi mon Toan Bo tuc THPT

Tags: Toan Bo, Bo GD, cua ham so, thi tot nghiep, duong thang, mat phang, phuong trinh, huong dan, dao ham, bo tuc, diem, biet, tinh, hoc, hinh


Bo GD-DT vua ban hanh Huong dan on thi tot nghiep Bo tuc THPT nam hoc 2006-2007. Duoi day la huong dan on tap cua mon Toan.

Ve ly thuyet:

Hieu, nho, van dung duoc cac khai niem, dinh nghia, dinh ly va cac cong thuc da hoc. Cu the hoc vien can nam vung cac kien thuc:

+ Phan Hinh hoc: Cac kien thuc can nho cua hai chuong Phuong phap toa do trong mat phang va Phuong phap toa do trong khong gian da duoc tong ket trong sach Bai tap hinh hoc do Nha xuat ban Giao duc an hanh tu nam 2000 tro lai day.

+ Phan Giai tich:

1. Dao ham va ung dung cua dao ham:

1.1. Dao ham: Dinh nghia va y nghia cua dao ham; Bang cac dao ham; Dao ham cap cao; Vi phan.

1.2. Ung dung cua dao ham: Su dong bien, nghich bien cua ham so; Cuc dai va cuc tieu; Gia tri lon nhat va gia tri nho nhat cua ham so; Tinh loi, lom va diem uon cua do thi; Tiem can; Khao sat bon ham so da hoc.

2. Nguyen ham va Tich phan:

2.1. Nguyen ham: Dinh nghia va cac tinh chat cua nguyen ham; Bang cac nguyen ham.

2.2. Tich phan: Dinh nghia va cac tinh chat cua tich phan; Cac phuong phap tinh tich phan; ung dung hinh hoc va vat li cua tich phan.

3. Dai so to hop

3.1. Quy tac cong va Quy tac nhan. Hoan vi. Chinh hop. To hop.

3.2. Cong thuc nhi thuc Niuton.

Ve bai tap

Nam vung cach giai cac loai bai toan co ban cua chuong trinh, cu the:

A. Giai tich

I- Chu de I: Dao ham va khao sat ham so

1. Van dung dao ham cua cac ham so so cap va dao ham cua cac ham so hop de tinh dao ham cua cac ham so.

2. Khao sat bon ham so da hoc trong muc D6 cua chuong II (ung dung cua dao ham).

3. Xet tinh lien tuc cua ham so.

4. Mot so bai toan lien quan den khao sat ham so.

4.1. Tim giao diem cua hai duong.

4.2. Viet phuong trinh tiep tuyen voi do thi (C) cua bon ham so da hoc.

4.3. Giai bat phuong trinh f(x) > 0; f(x) < 0, bien luan so nghiem cua phuong trinh f(x) = m khi biet do thi cua ham so y = f(x).

4.4. Biet ve do thi cua cac ham so y = f(x) ; y = f(x) khi biet do thi cua ham so y = f(x).

5. Tim gioi han cua cac ham so co cac dang

sin x

;

0

;

¥

x

0

¥

va gioi han co lien quan voi so e.

6. Tim gia tri lon nhat va gia tri nho nhat cua ham so tren mot khoang, tren mot doan.

II- Chu de 2: Nguyen ham. Tich phan va ung dung

1. Van dung cac tinh chat cua nguyen ham de tinh nguyen ham cua mot so ham so bang cach dua ve nhung nguyen ham co ban.

2. Tim cac tich phan theo phuong phap:

2.1. Su dung dinh nghia tich phan va bang cac nguyen ham.

2.2. Doi bien so.

2.3. Tich phan tung phan.

3. Su dung tich phan de tinh dien tich cua hinh phang va the tich cua vat the tron xoay.

III- Chu de 3: Dai so to hop

Van dung cac khai niem quy tac cong, quy tac nhan, hoan vi, chinh hop, to hop va cong thuc Nhi thuc Niuton de giai bai tap.

B. Hinh hoc

I- Chu de 1: Phuong phap toa do trong mat phang

1. Viet phuong trinh tong quat, tham so, chinh tac cua mot duong thang.

1.1. Duong thang di qua hai diem.

1.2. Duong thang di qua mot diem va biet vecto chi phuong hoac vecto phap tuyen cua duong thang.

1.3. Cac duong thang chua cac duong trong tam giac (canh, duong trung truc, duong phan giac, duong trung tuyen, duong cao).

1.4. Cac duong thang dac biet khac (tiep tuyen cua duong tron, tiep tuyen cua cac duong Conic, truc dang phuong cua hai duong tron).

1.5. Xac dinh vi tri tuong doi cua hai duong thang, khoang cach tu mot diem den mot duong thang.

2. Viet phuong trinh duong tron biet tam va ban kinh, biet hai diem dau cua duong kinh, duong tron ngoai tiep tam giac.

3. Viet cac phuong trinh chinh tac cua elip, hypebol, parabol khi biet cac dieu kien xac dinh chung; tim cac yeu to (tam sai, tieu diem, duong tiem can, duong chuan...) cua mot duong Conic khi biet phuong trinh cua no.

II- Chu de II: Phuong phap toa do trong khong gian

1. Cac bai toan ve duong thang.

Viet duoc phuong trinh tong quat, tham so, chinh tac cua mot duong thang khi biet:

1.1. Duong thang di qua hai diem.

1.2. Duong thang di qua mot diem va biet vecto chi phuong cua no.

1.3. Duong thang la giao tuyen cua hai mat phang.

1.4. Chung la duong vuong goc chung cua hai duong thang cheo nhau.

2. Cac bai toan ve mat phang.

Viet duoc phuong trinh mat phang khi biet:

2.1. Mot diem va vecto phap tuyen.

2.2. Mot diem va cap vecto chi phuong.

2.3. Ba diem khong thang hang, cap duong thang song song, mot diem va duong thang khong chua diem ay, hai duong thang cat nhau.

2.4. Chung di qua mot duong thang cho truoc va mot dieu kien da cho.

3. Cac bai toan ve vi tri tuong doi: giua hai mat phang, giua duong thang va mat phang, giua hai duong thang.

4. Cac bai toan ve tinh do dai, goc, dien tich tam giac. Tinh the tich hinh chop, hinh hop.

5. Cac bai toan ve tinh toan: khoang cach (tu mot diem den mat phang, diem den duong thang, giua hai duong thang cheo nhau, giua hai mat phang song song, giua mat phang va duong thang song song voi no); goc (giua hai mat phang, giua duong thang va mat phang, giua hai duong thang, giua hai vecto).

6. Cac bai toan:

6.1. Xac dinh giao diem cua duong thang va mat phang.

6.2. Tim hinh chieu vuong goc cua mot diem tren mot duong thang, tren mot mat phang.

6.3. Tim diem doi xung cua mot diem qua mot duong thang, qua mot mat phang.

6.4. Viet phuong trinh hinh chieu vuong goc cua duong thang tren mot mat phang da cho.

7. Cac bai toan ve mat cau: Viet phuong trinh mat cau biet tam va ban kinh, biet hai diem dau cua duong kinh, chung di qua bon diem khong dong phang, biet tam va mat phang tiep dien.

Viet phuong trinh mat phang tiep dien, tim tam va ban kinh mat cau khi biet phuong trinh mat cau. Xac dinh vi tri tuong doi giua mat phang va mat cau (cat nhau, tiep xuc va khong cat nhau). Xac dinh tam va ban kinh cua duong tron la giao cua mat cau va mat phang.

(Nguon Bo GD&DT)

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Lien he ve tin Huong dan on thi mon Toan Bo tuc THPT

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