Qua trinh hinh thanh va phat trien cua AlQaeda

Tags: Bin Laden, Arap Xeut, Lau Nam Goc, New York, Ai Cap, Xo Viet, Trung tam Thuong mai The gioi, Khung Bo Quoc Te, co cau to chuc, to chuc khung bo, vu tan cong, dac biet la, cac quoc gia, trai huan luyen, hoi giao, Al-Qaeda


I. Gioi thieu

Qua trinh hinh thanh va phat trien cua Al-Qaeda
Trum khung bo Bin Laden

To chuc khung bo quoc te Al-Qaeda do

Osama bin Laden thanh lap. Tieu chi hoat dong cua nhom khung bo nay la co gang thanh loc su anh huong cua phuong Tay, dac biet la My ra khoi cac quoc gia Hoi giao, dong thoi thiet lap quy tac Hoi giao chinh thong. Al-Qaeda, theo tieng Arap co nghia la ''Co so'' hoac la ''Doanh trai''. Dieu do am chi Al-Qaeda la co so nen tang hoac ''dai ban doanh'' de tien hanh cuoc cach mang Hoi giao tren khap the gioi.

Mang luoi khung bo Al-Qaeda tinh nghi la thu pham chinh trong vu tan cong khung bo hom 11/9/2001 vao Trung tam thuong mai The gioi WTC tai thanh pho New York va Lau Nam Goc tai Washington, D.C. Vao ngay do, 19 ten khung bo da cuop cac may bay hanh khach chi chut it sau khi may bay cat canh khoi nhung phi truong Boston, Massachusetts; Newark, New Jersey; Washington, D.C. 2 trong so cac may bay bi khong tac khong che da bi ep dam vao toa thap doi WTC. Mot chiec may bay da dam xuyen qua toa thap thu nhat cua Trung tam Thuong mai The gioi o New York. 20 phut sau, lai mot may bay khac dam vao toa thap ben canh. Ca hai toa thap 110 tang da sup do. Mot tieng sau, chiec may bay thu ba dam trung Lau Nam Goc (Washington DC), khien mot phan toa nha sup xuong. Chiec may bay thu tu, Boeing 757 thuoc hang United Airlines da roi o Pennsylvania, Dong Nam Pittsburg. Toan bo 45 hanh khach tren may bay deu thiet mang. Tong so nguoi thiet mang trong ca 4 vu dam lien tiep tren len toi 3.000 nguoi.

Ngoai ra, cac phan tu khung bo thuoc mang luoi al-Qaeda con tien hanh vu danh bom tu sat vao cac dai su quan cua My tai Kenya va Tanzania nam 1998, tan cong hang khong mau ham USS Cole cua My nam 2000 tai Aden, Yemen.

II. Dac vu cua Al-Qaeda

Qua trinh hinh thanh va phat trien cua Al-Qaeda
Tham hoa khung bo 11/9

Mang luoi khung bo Al-Qaeda dang tim cach kich dong phong trao jihad (Thanh chien) tren toan cau nham lat do cac che do ma al-Qaeda cho la thoi nat va phan Hoi giao tai cac quoc gia Arap va cac nuoc Hoi giao khac. Al-Qaeda muon thay the cac che do noi tren bang mot nha nuoc Hoi giao duy nhat hoac mot de che duoc quan ly chat che bang cai goi la sharia (Luat Hoi giao). Mang luoi khung bo nay luon coi My va cac nuoc phuong Tay khac la rao can chinh tren con duong thuc hien muc tieu tham vong tren, boi vi cac nuoc nay co moi quan he lien minh voi hau het cac nuoc Al-Qaeda cho la muc nat.

Al-Qaeda coi su hien dien cua luc luong quan doi My tai Arap Xeut la mot su lang ma ghe gom doi voi nguoi Hoi giao, boi vi Arap Xeut la noi ton tai 2 thanh dia linh thieng nhat cua nguoi Hoi giao la Mecca va Medina . Bin Laden da ban bo 2 fatwas (sac du Hoi giao) keu goi tin do truc xuat luc luong quan doi My ra khoi ban dao Arap, dong thoi cho phep dung bao luc de dat duoc muc tieu nay. Sac du 1998 duoc ban bo duoi cai ten ''Mat tran Hoi giao the gioi vi cuoc thanh chien chong lai Do Thai va quan thap tu chinh'' keu goi, viec tieu diet nguoi My va dong minh cua chung - ca dan thuong lan binh si - la trach nhiem cua moi nguoi Hoi giao, nhung nguoi co kha nang thuc hien dieu do tai bat ky quoc gia nao co the thuc hien duoc. Bin Laden coi su hien dien cua quan doi My nhu mot su tiep dien cua cac cuoc Thap tu chinh - hang loat cuoc chien tranh thoi Trung Co, trong do nhung nguoi Thien Chua giao phuong Tay mo cuoc chinh phat duoi bong cay thap tu chiem giu vung dat thanh cua nguoi Hoi giao.

Them nua, ke tu vu khung bo 11/9/2001, Bin Laden da tich cuc khai thac long thu han nguoi Israel trong cong dong nguoi Arap va nguoi Hoi giao, keu goi tieu diet nha nuoc Do Thai. Bin Laden dong thoi co gang to ve al-Qaeda nhu mot nguoi bao ve dich thuc cho Hoi giao va la can ve cua cac tin do Hoi giao o moi noi. Trum khung bo Bin Laden da len an manh me lenh cam van doi voi Iraq va tinh trang bao luc giang vao nguoi Hoi giao tai Bosnia, Chechnya, Dong Timor, Philippines, Sudan va Somalia.

Al-Qaeda duoc coi la mot trong nhung phong trao du doi nhat, dai dang nhat tren the gioi hien nay. Toan bo suc nang cua cuoc chien chong khung bo do My dung dau chu yeu de truc tiep len al-Qaeda. Voi su kien My tan cong Afghanistan , al-Qaeda da mat hau het cac trai huan luyen, cac can cu hoat dong va dac biet la Bo tu lenh cua minh tai quoc gia Nam A nay. Hang nghin tay sung va nhieu thu linh Al-Qaeda da bi tieu diet hoac bat giam. Tuy nhien, cho den nay, mang luoi nay van chung to kha nang tiep tuc cac dot tan cong khung bo moi.

Qua trinh hinh thanh va phat trien cua Al-Qaeda

Vi du trong nam 2002, hang loat cac vu tan cong khung bo dam mau co lien quan toi al-Qaeda da xay ra tai hang loat cac quoc gia tren the gioi nhu Tunisia, Pakistan, Jordan, Indonesia, Kuwait, Philippines, Yemen va Kenya. Hau het cac vu tan cong nham muc tieu vao khach du lich Australia, Duc, Israel, cac ky su nguoi Phap va dac biet la quan chuc ngoai giao va quan su My. Al-Qaeda da tiep tuc su dung chien thuat danh bom lieu chet - ca tren bo va tren bien. Mot nhom vu trang tinh nghi co quan he toi mang luoi khung bo quoc te al-Qaeda nay cung da bat coc va sat hai nha bao My cua to Wall Street Journal Daniel Pearl.

Nganh hang khong dan dung van duoc coi la muc tieu quan trong cua al-Qaeda. Thang 12/2001, mot ten khung bo al-Qaeda am muu danh bom chiec may bay cua hang hang khong My dang tren lo trinh tu Paris toi Miami, Florida. 11 thang sau, mot nhom vu trang tai Kenya tinh nghi co lien quan toi mang luoi khung bo quoc te al-Qaeda da ban roi mot chuyen co cua Israel bang ten lua dat doi khong.

III. Co cau to chuc al-Qaeda

Cac co quan tinh bao phuong Tay da nghien cuu rat ky co cau to chuc noi tai cua mang luoi khung bo quoc te al-Qaeda, tu nhung ke dao ngu toi nhung nguoi cung cap tin tuc, dac biet thong qua loi khai cua 4 bi cao bi Toa an New York City buoc toi co vai tro trong hang loat vu danh bom dai su quan My tai Kenya va Tanzania. Theo nhung thong tin thu nhan duoc, co cau to chuc cua al-Qaeda ket hop chat che 2 mo hinh ''tu tren xuong'' va ''tu duoi len''.

Voi co cau to chuc tu tren xuong, bin Laden duoc coi nhu Dai vuong cua al-Qaeda. Vi dai vuong nay co quyen ban hanh chi dan ve tinh than cung nhu co quyen giam sat hoat dong chien luoc cua toan mang luoi. Bin Laden chinh la thu linh toi cao va la nhan vat duoc trong vong nhat trong mang luoi al-Qaeda. Voi tu cach la Dai vuong, bin Laden da vach muc tieu hoat dong cho al-Qaeda va ban hanh cac sac lenh bao dam viec thuc thi cac muc tieu do. Majlis al-shura (Hoi dong tu van) co nhiem vu hoach dinh chinh sach quan trong, giai quyet cac van de chien luoc, dong thoi thong qua cac chi du va cho phep thuc thi cac chien dich khung bo lon. Bon Uy ban hoat dong, chiu trach nhiem cac hoat dong quan su, tai chinh, kinh doanh, fatwas, cac van de ton giao, truyen thong, quan he cong phai co trach nhiem bao cao len Majlis al-shura.

Cung luc, bin Laden cung quan tam toi cac y tuong tan cong tu cap duoi, khuyen khich cac giai phap sang kien va loi tu duy ''ngoai hop'' cua cac thanh vien va nhung nguoi theo al-Qaeda. Nhu vay, Bin Laden san sang cap tai chinh cho cac de xuat duoc danh gia la co hua hen nhat. Ve mat nay, al-Qaeda hoan toan khong giong voi cac nhom khung bo khac - nhung to chuc co co cau hinh bac thang. Co cau cua al-Qaeda theo mo hinh kim tu thap, trong do chi huy toi cao - Bin Laden - dung tren dinh chop co quyen ra menh lenh cho cac phan nhom khung bo o duoi. Nhu vay ro rang, chien dich tan cong cua al-Qaeda, dac biet la cac vu khung bo toi quan trong nhu 11/9, cac vu danh bom dai su quan My, vu tan cong hang khong mau ham USS Cole duong nhu duoc len ke hoach va ra lenh boi bin Laden va Majlis al-shura. Tuy nhien, cac vu nho hon kieu nhu ke hoach danh bom giay tren may bay, hoac tan cong bang rocket co the deu duoc tien hanh mot cach doc lap boi nhung nhom khung bo dia phuong va chi duoc Bin Laden va Al-Qaeda ho tro gian tiep.

Ro rang, co cau to chuc thanh vien cua Al-Qaeda khong chat che bang cac nhom khung bo co to chuc truyen thong khac. Tuy nhien, voi co cau nay, al-Qaeda van co the duy tri tinh lien tuc cac chien dich khung bo cua minh bat chap suc nang cua cuoc chien chong khung bo do My phat dong. Cac phan tu khung bo hoac cac nhom khung bo doc lap hoat dong duoi o du cua al-Qaeda van co the tu hoat dong va phat dong khung bo ma khong can nhan chi du cu the nao tu Bo chi huy al-Qaeda. Voi co cau thoang nay, al-Qaeda khong co mot he thong phuong phap hoat dong hoac mot dac tinh doc lap va de nhan biet. Dieu nay khien cac luc luong hanh phap va quan su rat kho co the danh bai hoan toan duoc mang luoi nay.

IV. Lich su hinh thanh al-Qaeda

Su khoi nguyen cua Al-Qaeda co the bat dau tu cuoc chien Afghanistan nam 1979 voi su tham gia cua quan doi Lien Xo (USSR). Bin Laden, con trai cua mot ty phu Arap Xeut, la mot trong so hang nghin thanh nien Hoi giao mo dao tinh nguyen sang Afghanistan chien dau chong lai quan doi Xo Viet. Chinh bin Laden da lap ra cai goi la ''Nguoi bao tro cua jihad'' va cung voi Sheik Abdullah Azzam thanh lap to chuc Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK or “Offices of Services”) nam 1984. To chuc MAK hoat dong nhu mot van phong tuyen dung hay trung tam dieu phoi cho Lu doan Hoi giao quoc te chien dau tai Afghanistan.

Trong suot mot thap ky chien tranh, MAK co the da dao tao, trang bi va cap tai chinh cho khoang tu 10.000 den 50.000 mujahideen (nhung chien binh tham gia thanh chien) tu hon 50 quoc gia. Mac du MAK co chi nhanh tren khap the gioi, trong do co ca o chau Au va tham chi o My, nhung cac thanh vien mang quoc tich Arap van chiem gan mot nua tong quan so, con lai la nguoi Algeria, Ai Cap, Yemen, Pakistan va Sudan. Cac thanh vien la nguoi Arap chiem da so cung boi bin Laden. Su noi tieng va giau co cua gia dinh Bin laden tai Arap Xeut da tao dieu kien cho Bin Laden co tam anh huong lon. Ngoai ra, su tuan thu luat Hoi giao mot cach triet de tai Arap Xeut cung da gop phan khuyen khich nhieu thanh nien san sang di theo loi keu goi bao ve Afghanistan va the gioi Hoi giao.

Khi cuoc chien chong Xo Viet gan ket thuc cung la luc bin Laden va Azzam bat dau nay sinh mau thuan. Cuoc tranh cai bat nguon tu viec lieu MAK co nen tiep tuc tap trung hoat dong tai Afghanistan nhu Azzam mong muon hay nen tap trung cho cuoc thanh chien tren khap toan cau theo chu y cua bin Laden. Ve van de nay, bin Laden chiu anh huong lon tu cac nha than hoc Hoi giao nhu Sayyid Qutb, Thu linh cua To chuc Tinh anh em Hoi giao (Muslim Brotherhood ) tai Ai Cap va Maulana Sayed Abdul A’la Maudoodi, mot nha bao goc An Do, dong thoi la mot hoc gia da tron sang Pakistan tu nam 1947. Cac nhan vat tren deu day rang, jihad la trach nhiem ca nhan va can thiet phai thiet lap mot che do tri vi mang dam mau sac Hoi giao tai cac quoc gia cua nguoi Hoi giao - thong qua bao luc neu can thiet. Theo ho, cac quan niem cua phuong Tay ve chu nghia the tuc (Su chia cat giua Chinh phu va Ton giao) va dan chu hoan toan sai lam. Them nua, My va phuong Tay bi gan cho biet danh la nhung ke thu cua nguoi Hoi giao.

Mac du nhung phac thao ve mang luoi al-Qaeda bat dau tu nhung nam 1987 - 1988, song chi sau khi Azzam bi am sat nam 1989, al-Qaeda moi chinh thuc tach khoi MAK tro thanh phong trao thanh chien theo cach rieng cua no. Cung trong thoi gian do, quan doi Xo Viet rut quan khoi Afghanistan. Su thanh cong cua phong trao mujahideen trong viec truc xuat mot trong nhung sieu cuong the gioi luc bay gio ra khoi manh dat Hoi giao mang y nghia anh huong lon doi voi bin Laden. Khi Lien Xo tan ra, Bin Laden lien tap trung suc luc vao no luc doi dau voi My va co gang duoi My ra khoi nhung vung dat Hoi giao.

V. Su phat trien cua Al-Qaeda

Nam 1989, bin Laden tro lai Arap Xeut. Ten trum khung bo nay da len tieng phan doi gay gat su hien dien cua quan doi My va phuong Tay tai Arap Xeut trong cuoc chien vung Vinh 1991 va cong khai phan doi nen quan chu tai Arap Xeut da cho phep My tiep tuc duy tri su hien dien quan doi ngay ca khi chien tranh da ket thuc. Thang 4/1991, bin Laden sang Pakistan. Nam 1992, bin Laden chuyen sang Sudan, noi ong nay duoc Mat tran Hoi giao dan toc cam quyen chao don.

Tu nam 1991 den nam 1996, bin Laden bi mat xay dung al-Qaeda thanh mot mang luoi khung bo quoc te kinh khung nhat voi cac phan nhom va chi nhanh hoat dong tai khoang it nhat 45 quoc gia tren the gioi. Qua trinh phat trien cua Al-Qaeda khong chi duoc cham bam bang khoan tien khong lo cua bin Laden, ma con bang hang chuc ty do la tu nhieu nguon tai chinh khac. Cac nguon tai chinh nay bao gom ca cac hoat dong kinh doanh tuong nhu hop phap, song tren thuc te la cai pheu rot doanh thu cho al-Qaeda...

Cac trai huan luyen cua Al-Qaeda da duoc xay dung tai Sudan tu 1989, va hau het moi hoat dong cua mang luoi nay deu xuat phat tu do cho den nam 1992. Al-Qaeda bi tinh nghi tien hanh vu tan cong vao quan nhan My tai Yemen nam 1992 va tien hanh vu tan cong tai Mogadishu, Somalia khien 18 binh si thiet mang. Tuy nhien, vu khung bo dau tien chac chan lien quan toi al-Qaeda la vu danh bom trung tam huan luyen chung cua My va Arap Xeut tai Riyadh nam 1995 khien 5 nguoi My thiet mang.

Truoc suc ep to lon tu phia Arap Xeut va My, thang 5/1996, Chinh phu Sudan da phai truc xuat bin Laden va tay chan. Cung voi khoang 150 dan ong, dan ba va tre em, bin Laden da tron sang Afghanistan va nhanh chong thiet lap duoc moi quan he khang khit voi che do Taliban cam quyen tai day. Bin Laden dac biet gan gui voi Thu linh Taliban Mullah Muhammad Omar. De duoc co cho bi mat hoat dong va su dung cac trai huan luyen khung bo va can cu, bin Laden phai tra cho gioi cam quyen Taliban rat nhieu tien va binh si. Bang cach lam nhu vay, bin Laden da thu phuc hoan toan gioi cam quyen tai quoc gia co truyen thong bao tro khung bo nay. Voi nen kinh te que quat, chien tranh lien mien, Afghanistan ngay cang tro nen phu thuoc vao al-Qaeda, cu the la vao tui tien cua bin Laden. Do vay, vao cuoi nhung nam 90, al-Qaeda da huan luyen duoc hang van chien binh Hoi giao tai ca Sudan va Afghanistan.

Thang 8/1998, al-Qaeda tien hanh hau nhu cung luc hang loat vu danh bom tu sat vao cac dai su quan My tai Nairobi, Kenya va Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Hau qua la, hon 300 nguoi bi chet va gan 5.000 nguoi khac bi thuong. De tra dua, My da phat dong tan cong bang ten lua hang trinh vao cac trai huan luyen cua al-Qaeda tai Afghanistan va vao mot nha may duoc pham tai Khartoum, Sudan, noi tinh nghi la co so san xuat khi gay te liet than kinh cua bin Laden.

Ke tu do, bin Laden va moi hoat dong cua ten nay deu duoc cac co quan tinh bao cua My theo doi sat sao. 19/1999, mot ten khung bo al-Qaeda vao My tu Canada mang theo nhiem vu danh bom san bay quoc te Los Angeles da bi bat. Chi it thoi gian sau, mot am muu danh bom khu cho Strasbourg, Phap nham sat hai nguoi My va khach du lich Israel truoc le ky niem thien nien ky moi da bi lat tay. Tuy nhien, chua day mot nam sau, al-Qaeda lai thanh cong voi don tan cong lieu chet vao hang khong mau ham cua Hai quan My USS Cole, tai Aden, Yemen, khien 17 linh My thiet mang va 39 nguoi khac bi thuong.

Dac biet, al-Qaeda tinh nghi la thu pham chinh trong vu tan cong khung bo hom 11/9/2001 vao Trung tam thuong mai The gioi WTC tai thanh pho New York va Lau Nam Goc tai Washington, D.C. Vao ngay do, 19 ten khung bo da cuop cac may bay hanh khach chi it thoi gian sau khi may bay cat canh khoi nhung phi truong Boston, Massachusetts; Newark, New Jersey; Washington, D.C. 2 trong so cac may bay bi khong tac khong che da bi ep dam vao toa thap doi WTC. Mot chiec may bay da dam xuyen qua toa thap thu nhat cua Trung tam Thuong mai The gioi o New York. 20 phut sau, lai mot may bay khac dam vao toa thap ben canh. Ca hai toa thap 110 tang da sup do. Mot tieng sau, chiec may bay thu ba dam trung Lau Nam Goc (Washington DC), khien mot phan toa nha sup xuong. Chiec may bay thu tu, Boeing 757 thuoc hang United Airlines - da roi o Pennsylvania, Dong Nam Pittsburg. Toan bo 45 hanh khach tren may bay deu thiet mang. Tong so nguoi thiet mang trong ca 4 vu dam lien tiep tren len toi 3.000 nguoi.

VI. Al-Qaeda ke tu vu 11/9

Phan ung truoc su kien dam mau 11/9, My da tuyen bo phat dong cuoc chien chong khung bo toan cau. Dem 7/10/2001, 15 may bay danh bom, 25 may bay chien dau da duoc su dung va 50 ten lua hanh trinh Tomahawk da duoc ban di tu cac tau Anh - My o bien Arap nham vao muc tieu tren lanh tho Afghanistan. Trong cac muc tieu bi tan cong co ca he thong phong khong va may bay cua Taliban. Ngoai ra, cac vu tan cong co may bay nem bom B-1, B-2 va B-52 cung cac tau chien va tau ngam. Cac may bay B-52 da tha hang chuc qua bom nang 226 kg xuong cac trai huan luyen khung bo Al Qaeda. Chi mot thang sau, che do Taliban da bi lat do va al-Qaeda bi truc xuat khoi Afghanistan.

Trong khi do, My va cac dong minh van tiep tuc day manh cuoc chien chong khung bo tren pham vi toan cau nham phong toa cac nguon tai chinh cho al-Qaeda va ngan chan mang luoi nay chuyen va nhan tien. Hang loat to chuc tu thien tinh nghi co cung cap tai chinh cho khung bo deu bi dong cua. Nhieu luat chong khung bo tren the gioi co hieu luc. Uoc tinh, co khoang hon 3.000 thanh vien al-Qaeda da bi bat giu tai hon 60 quoc gia. Thang 3/2003, nha chuc trach Pakistan va My da bat giu Khalid Shaikh Muhammad , Thu linh quan su cua al-Qaeda va la nghi pham chu muu vu tan cong khung bo 11/9.

Mac du Al-Qaeda bi suy yeu ro ret, nhieu cuoc tan cong khung bo van lien tiep xay ra tai Tunisia, Bali, Kuwait, Kenya, Arap Xeut...Dieu nay cho thay, mang luoi khung bo nay van chua bi triet pha hoan toan .

VII. Tuong lai cua Al-Qaeda

Co le, van de noi com hien nay la xac dinh lieu bin Laden da chet hay van con song. Mot cuon bang ghi am tinh nghi la cua bin Laden da duoc phat hoi 11/2002 mang noi dung ngoi khen cac cuoc tan cong khung bo nham vao hang loat muc tieu phuong Tay va de doa se xay ra nhieu vu tan cong moi . Cu the, bin Laden de doa Australia, Bi, Anh, Phap, Duc va Tay Ban Nha - nhung nuoc da bat giu nhieu thanh vien al-Qaeda va hop tac voi My trong cuoc chien chong chu nghia khung bo toan cau. Mot cau hoi nua cung khong kem phan quan trong la, lieu al-Qaeda co the cuu Bin Laden thoat chet. Bin Laden duoc bao boc boi hang loat cac pho tuong gom Ayman Muhammad Rabi' al-Zawahiri, nguoi Ai Cap, mot chien luoc gia dong thoi la chi huy hang thu 2 cua bin Laden, nhan vat duoc cho la hien van con song sot. Mot pho tuong khac cua trum khung bo bin Laden la Saif al-Adel - chi huy an ninh cua al Qaeda, nguoi nay duoc cho la chuyen vach ra ke hoach va chi tiet cac hanh dong, co the la nhan vat dat ra nen tang.

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Tìm hiểu: Bin Laden, Arap Xeut, Lau Nam Goc, New York, Ai Cap, Xo Viet, Trung tam Thuong mai The gioi, Khung Bo Quoc Te, co cau to chuc, to chuc khung bo, vu tan cong, dac biet la, cac quoc gia, trai huan luyen, hoi giao, Al-Qaeda

Xem Bản Tiếng Việt Có Dấu: Quá trình hình thành và phát triển của Al-Qaeda

Ban co the doc ban tieng Viet co dau cua bai viet Quá trình hình thành và phát triển của Al-Qaeda bang cach nhan chuot vao duong dan tren.

Lien he ve tin Qua trinh hinh thanh va phat trien cua AlQaeda

Nhan xet, hay lien he ve tin Qua trinh hinh thanh va phat trien cua AlQaeda co the gui bang duong dan o duoi. Ban nen gui kem tieu de bai viet Qua trinh hinh thanh va phat trien cua AlQaeda de lam tham khao. Bai viet nay thuoc chuyen de Tim hieu trong chuyen muc The gioi.

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