Co can thiet phai tiem chung

Tags: Nhat Ban, Ha Lan, Sanofi Pasteur VN, Do Tuong Phuoc, giam doc khoa hoc, viem mang nao, pho giam doc, bo y te, tiem chung, co the, Tiem phong, can thiet, co can, den


Co can thiet phai tiem chung

Co can thiet phai tiem phong? Nen tiem nhung benh gi? Vi sao co tai bien sau khi tiem?... Duoc si Do Tuong Phuoc - Giam doc khoa hoc Cong ty Sanofi Pasteur VN, nguyen Pho Giam doc Trung tam Nhi khoa TPHCM, tu nghiep thac si y hoc cong dong tai Ha Lan va Phap cho biet:

Voi tre em, viec tiem ngua la rat can thiet. To chuc Y te the gioi (WHO) cung khuyen cao nen tiem phong cac loai benh nguy hiem. Viec tiem vacxin phong mot benh nao do co the ton 10 USD, nhung neu khong tiem khi bi benh co the ton den hang tram USD.

Nhung thua ong, sau vu bay tre em duoi 2 tuoi bi tai bien (mot da tu vong) khi tiem ngua vacxin Priorix Varilrix o Q.5, TPHCM khien nhieu nguoi lo lang?

Nhieu nam qua Bo Y te VN da thuc hien chuong trinh tiem chung mo rong mien phi cho tre em duoi 1 tuoi, phong 6 loai benh nguy hiem, co bien chung nang, nguy co tu vong cao, theo khuyen cao cua WHO. Do la benh lao, bach hau, ho ga, uon van, soi va bai liet. Gan day bo sung them benh viem gan sieu vi B. Ngoai ra, tre em o mot so dia phuong co luu hanh dich te benh viem nao Nhat Ban cao cung duoc Nha nuoc ho tro tiem mien phi.

Khong nen vi mot vai ca tai bien ma ba con hoang mang, khong di tiem phong!

Tai VN con luu hanh nhieu loai benh khac nhu viem mang nao mu, viem nao Nhat Ban, thuy dau... Vay co can thiet tiem ngua them nhung benh nay khong?

Nhung vung nao co luu hanh loai dich benh gi cung nen tiem ngua. Nhu benh viem mang nao mu la benh hay gap o tre em duoi 5 tuoi, dac biet la duoi 2 tuoi va co the de lai di chung khong tot cho suc khoe. Ngoai ra, cung nen tiem ngua viem nao Nhat Ban, viem gan sieu vi B.

Neu phu huynh co dieu kien co the cho tre tiem ngua them cac benh thuy dau, soi, quai bi, rubella... Rieng cac benh viem mang nao hay viem nao do virus... den nay chua co vacxin thi phai phong benh theo cach khac.

Gan day co nhung loai vacxin chi can tiem mot mui nhung co the phong duoc 4, 5 benh. Nhieu nguoi lo lang co khi khong tot cho co the?

Co nhung vacxin da tac dung tiem mot mui nhung bao ve co the khong bi mac den 5 benh. Dieu nay khong co hai cho suc khoe ma con co mot so thuan loi la cha me khong phai mat thoi gian dua tre di tiem nhieu lan; tre do dau do khong phai tiem nhieu lan; viec quan ly, bao quan kho thuoc cung de dang hon.

Tuy nhien, vacxin da tac dung luon co gia thanh cao hon vacxin phong tung benh don le.

Ong co the cho biet khi nao thi khong nen tiem phong? Mot nguoi tiem nhieu lan, tiem lien tuc mot so vacxin phong benh thi co anh huong co canh tay hay khong?

Neu dang bi sot, bi benh, co the suy nhuoc... thi khong nen tiem. Viec tiem chung da co tu 50-60 nam nay, nhung cho den nay chua co tai lieu nao noi den viec tiem chung nhieu lan, lien tuc co anh huong den co bao gio. Hon nua, lich tiem chung o tre em da duoc WHO, Bo Y te VN co phac do huong dan cac co so y te de dam bao tao khang the som cho tre ma van an toan, hop ly.

Tiem chung o dau?

Viec tiem phong cac benh trong chuong trinh tiem chung mo rong da duoc Bo Y te trien khai den tan cac tram y te phuong xa. Sau khi tre sinh, phu huynh dua tre den cac tram y te phuong de tiem phong mien phi.

Doi voi nhung benh chua nam trong chuong trinh, co the den Vien Pasteur TPHCM, Trung tam Y te du phong TP, Benh vien Nhi Dong 1 va 2, 24 doi y te du phong quan huyen va mot so benh vien san, benh vien tu nhan duoc phep tiem ngua cua So Y te TPHCM.

Nha san xuat thuong khuyen cao rang co mot ti le nho sau tiem chung co the bi tai bien do tac dung phu cua thuoc gay ra. Vi sao co tac dung phu nay, va khi xay ra co the nguy hiem den tinh mang?

Viec tiem chung vacxin la dua vao co the nguoi mot khang nguyen (protein) ve mot loai benh nham de co the cua nguoi duoc tiem ngua tao ra khang the chong lai benh do. Viec dua mot protein la vao co the thuong co the se chong lai. Phan ung de gap sau tiem la sot, dau, do, sung noi tiem. Day la phan ung phu gan nhu loai vacxin nao cung co.

Co khi co them noi hach, tieu chay, di ung (man do da, ngua), moi tim tai. Tuy nhien, phan ung nhieu hay it, nang hay nhe con tuy thuoc co dia, suc de khang cua moi nguoi. Nhung phan ung nay thuong khong gay nguy hiem den tinh mang.

Neu chi la phan ung thong thuong, sot nhe, noi hong ban khu tru noi tiem... chi can theo doi o nha, uong thuoc ha sot, giam dau. Truong hop co sot cao, uong thuoc ha sot ma khong ha duoc, noi tiem sung to, tim tai moi, dau chi, noi do da nhieu... nen den benh vien kham de duoc theo doi, dieu tri.

Ky thuat tiem sai, khong dam bao vo trung co the gay tai bien cho nguoi tiem phong khong, thua ong?

Viec tiem phong phai dam bao dung ky thuat, phai vo trung tuyet doi. Truoc khi tiem thong thuong phai lam cho vacxin “nguoi” bang nhiet do binh thuong. Khong lay vacxin con dang o nhiet do 20do C dem ra tiem lien. Dong thoi phai lac tron that deu moi lay ra tiem.

Khi tiem, tuyet doi khong duoc tiem vo mach mau, tranh tiem vo hach bach huyet vi co the gay ra phan ung phu khac nhu sung, viem cho tiem. Khi tiem phai lay bong gon co alcohol de sat trung ngoai da, doi alcohol bay hoi roi moi tiem. Tiem xong dung bong gon sach vo trung dap len. Khong duoc lay bong gon co alcohol dap len vet tiem vi co the giet chet virus hoac vi khuan tao ra khang the.

Xin cam on ong.

Theo Le Thanh Ha

Tuoi tre

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Tìm hiểu: Nhat Ban, Ha Lan, Sanofi Pasteur VN, Do Tuong Phuoc, giam doc khoa hoc, viem mang nao, pho giam doc, bo y te, tiem chung, co the, Tiem phong, can thiet, co can, den

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