Cac truong hop khong nen tiem phong vaccin

Tags: Ha Tinh, Vien Pasteur TP, BS Nguyen Thi Minh Phuong, bo y te, tre so sinh, chong chi dinh, So Y te, tiem chung, Tiem phong, co the, phan ung, truong hop, xay ra, Vaccin


Cac truong hop khong nen tiem phong vaccin
Tiem phong thuy dau tai Vien Pasteur TP.HCM, sang 27/4 - Anh: TT

Viec hai tre so sinh tai Ha Tinh tu vong sau tiem vaccin vua qua khien cac bac phu huynh lo lang. Vay phai lam gi, tiem phong benh nhu the nao de khong xay ra hau qua dau long?

BS Nguyen Thi Minh Phuong - Vien Pasteur TP.HCM, thu ky Chuong trinh tiem chung phia Nam - cho biet:

- Chuong trinh tiem chung mo rong hien da trien khai tiem phong 10 benh cho cac chau, gom: lao, soi, bai liet, bach hau - ho ga - uon van, viem gan sieu vi B, viem nao Nhat Ban, thuong han, ta. Tuy nhien cac bac phu huynh cung rat quan tam dua tre di tiem phong them mot so benh, nhat la cac benh nhu rubella, trai ra...

* BS co the cho biet cac truong hop chong chi dinh?

- Voi tung loai vaccin nen tuan thu theo huong dan cua nha san xuat. Vi du chong chi dinh cua vaccin viem nao Nhat Ban la sot cao hoac benh nhiem trung dang tien trien, benh tim, than, gan, tieu duong, suy dinh duong, ung thu mau va cac benh ac tinh noi chung, benh qua man cam, phu nu co thai. Vaccin thuong han chong chi dinh voi tre duoi 2 tuoi va phu nu dang mang thai (truong hop bat buoc phai tiem can co y kien cua BS dieu tri. Tre tu 2-5 tuoi cung can hoi y kien BS).

Vaccin bach hau - ho ga - uon van khong tiem cho tre trong cac truong hop: nhiem trung cap tinh, sot chua ro nguyen nhan, cac benh cap tinh va man tinh dang o thoi ky tien trien, nhung truong hop co roi loan than kinh (co giat, viem nao va cac benh ve nao), benh tim mach (bam sinh hay mac phai), tre suy dinh duong, bi nhiem HIV.

Vaccin phong thuy dau co chong chi dinh voi nhung nguoi qua man toan than voi neomycin, trong thai ky va tranh co thai sau khi tiem vaccin ba thang. Vaccin phong rubella cung khong nen tiem cho phu nu dang co thai hay nghi ngo co thai, nguoi di ung voi neomycin, di ung voi trung, suy giam mien dich hoac dang su dung cac thuoc uc che mien dich, nguoi bi benh ac tinh ve mau, bi nhiem trung cap tinh hoac man tinh...

De nghi ngung su dung lo vacxin gay tai bien

Nguon tin tu Bo Y te cho biet chuong trinh tiem chung mo rong da co de nghi tam ngung su dung lo vaccin ngua viem gan B so UVX 05028, han su dung den 2008 do Han Quoc san xuat tren pham vi toan quoc.

Viec ngung su dung se keo dai den khi co ket luan cuoi cung cua Bo Y te ve nguyen nhan khien hai tre so sinh tu vong sau tiem hom 23/4 tai Ha Tinh.

Qua kiem tra tai Ha Tinh, doan cong tac cua Bo Y te do pho vien truong Vien Ve sinh dich te T.U Pham Ngoc Dinh dan dau cho biet, chua phat hien sai sot trong bao quan vaccin va chi dinh tiem chung cho hai be. Nhieu nam qua, loai vaccin nay da duoc su dung tiem cho khoang 4 trieu tre so sinh va duoi 1 tuoi voi khoang 10 trieu mui tiem da thuc hien nhung chua phat hien tai bien nghiem trong sau tiem.

* Ve tuong tac thuoc, co nha san xuat khuyen nen tranh dung thuoc ha nhiet loai salicylate (Aspirine, Algotropyl...) sau tiem vaccin phong thuy dau it nhat sau tuan do co the gay hoi chung Reye. Nhung co nha san xuat lai khong neu day du cac chong chi dinh.

- Theo tai lieu, hoi chung Reye thuong xay ra voi nhung benh nhiem sieu vi, dac biet la benh cum va thuy dau, gay ton thuong o gan va nao. Tranh dung Aspirine cho tre bi benh vi co the suy gan va dan den tu vong. Hoi chung Reye thuong xay ra o tre nho, tuy nhien cung co the xay ra o moi lua tuoi.

* BS co the cho biet mot so phan ung sau tiem thuong gap? Nguyen nhan vi sao?

- Nhung phan ung sau tiem chung co the gap la phan ung tai cho nhu dau, sung, do noi tiem; phan ung toan than nhu sot, de bi kich thich, cam giac kho chiu... Tuy nhien co the gap mot so phan ung nang nhu soc phan ve, bi phan ung qua man (noi ban, ngua...). Tuy tung loai vaccin co nhung phan ung dac thu.

Ve nguyen nhan co the do ban chat cua vaccin; do sai sot trong thuc hanh tiem chung; do su trung hop ngau nhien - tuc dang bi benh tien trien nhung tiem chung; cac phan ung tam ly (so); khong ro nguyen nhan. De khac phuc, khi tiem chung can bo phai tuyen truyen, dan do phu huynh va benh nhan that day du.

* Nhieu co so y te qua tai nen BS khong hoi tinh trang truoc do, lai khong dan do cach xu tri khi tre bi phan ung sau chich?

- Bo Y te da ban hanh qui dinh ve tiem chung va chuyen den cac co so y te tu thang 2/2007 voi cac thong tin kha day du tu lich tiem cho tung loai vaccin, duong tiem, lieu luong, vi tri tiem, cac buoc chuan bi, thuc hanh va dam bao an toan tiem chung. Cac ba me co the tham khao, quan sat nguoi can bo y te lam dung hay sai de co quyet dinh tiem hay tu choi.

* BS co khuyen cao gi de cac ba me can trong truoc khi quyet dinh dua con di chung ngua?

- Loi khuyen cho cac ba me la truoc khi tiem tre phai duoc BS hoac can bo y te kham suc khoe. Day la mot yeu cau bat buoc truoc moi lan tiem. Trong khi kham, ba me nho ke day du nhung bat thuong ve suc khoe nhu di ung thuoc, di ung thuc an truoc do, dang sot, so mui, ho, suyen, tieu chay... hoac dang uong thuoc dieu tri mot benh nao do. Doi voi so sinh co nhung trieu chung nhu kho khe, tieu chay... hay khong.

Nguyen tac la sau tiem cac ba me nen o lai phong tiem trong vong 30 phut. Doi voi cac tre da co phan ung voi vaccin cua lan truoc (nhu viem gan B, OPV...) thi lan sau co the chuyen sang tiem ngua cung benh do nhung voi mot loai vacxin khac. Du nhung tre nay da duoc chuyen sang tiem vacxin khac nhung can bo y te van phai theo doi rat ky, va tot nhat la be nen duoc tiem o cac BV co phong kham tre em lanh manh de co the cap cuu kip thoi neu co van de xay ra.

Khi tiem phong, khong kieng tam, kieng an gi ca... Neu co phan ung xay ra phai bao ngay cho can bo y te noi da tiem chung, dua ngay be den co so y te gan nhat va bao tinh trang be vua tiem chung...

(theo TT)

Viet Bao
Tìm hiểu: Ha Tinh, Vien Pasteur TP, BS Nguyen Thi Minh Phuong, bo y te, tre so sinh, chong chi dinh, So Y te, tiem chung, Tiem phong, co the, phan ung, truong hop, xay ra, Vaccin

Xem Bản Tiếng Việt Có Dấu: Các trường hợp không nên tiêm phòng vaccin

Ban co the doc ban tieng Viet co dau cua bai viet Các trường hợp không nên tiêm phòng vaccin bang cach nhan chuot vao duong dan tren.

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