Tran danh kinh dong ca the gioi cua nguoi Viet

Tags: Mong Co, Dai Viet, Trung Quoc, Thai Binh, Van Kiep, Phan Tiep, Hoi nghi Dien Hong, o Ma Nhi, Hung Dao Vuong, Thanh Thang Long, Tran Quang Khai, Thoat Hoan, Vua Tran, Quan Nguyen, Toa Do, tuong


Quan si hung huc dung khi. Khong mot nguoi linh nao khong thay vinh du khi duoc hy sinh cuu nuoc. Cac chien sy va nhieu nguoi dan da tu chich vao tay hai chu Sat That (Giet giac Mong Co) de noi len quyet tam cua minh.

Don doc bai 1:

» Nhung tran danh khien nguoi phuong Bac kinh hon bat via (ky 1)


Bai 2: Ba lan danh bai Nguyen Mong

Thang Chap nam At Dau (1225) Ly Chieu Hoang nhuong ngoi cho chong la Tran Canh, cham dut giai doan nha Ly cai tri Dai Viet va cung la thoi ky mo dau cua vuong trieu Tran o nuoc ta. Tran Canh len lam vua (Tran Thai Tong), phong cho Tran Thu Do la Thai su thong quoc thanh quan Chinh Thao Su.

Sau khi thay the nha Ly (o giai doan nay da qua suy yeu ve chinh tri, quan su, kinh te) - Trieu dinh nha Tran tich cuc day manh viec phat trien kinh te nong nghiep, quai de lan bien, tieu diet cac the luc chong doi, on dinh tinh hinh chinh tri trong nuoc, chinh quyen trung uong tap quyen duoc cung co vung chac hon so voi trieu truoc.

O dat nuoc Mong Co, nam 1206 Thanh Cat Tu Han len lam vua. Nha nuoc phong kien Mong Co duoc hinh thanh va phat trien, nhanh chong tro thanh mot de quoc lon manh chua tung co trong lich su the gioi tu truoc den gio. Quan Mong Co duoi su lanh dao cua Thanh Cat Tu Han da xam luoc rat nhieu nuoc Chau Au va Chau A.

O Chau Au vo ngua Mong Co da tien den Ba Lan va Duc, Hungari va toi sat Y vao nam 1242, khien ca Chau Au chan dong.

“Theo su bien nien cua nuoc Phap thi moi lo so truoc quan Mong Co da lam dinh tre ca su buon ban”. O Duc xuat hien bai kinh cau nguyen “Chua cuu vot chung con khoi con thinh no cua Tac-ta – Mong Co”.

O phia Nam quan Mong Co chiem Trung Quoc, Cao Ly, tan cong Nhat Ban... Mot de quoc Mong Co rong menh mong duoc tao lap tu bo bien Hac Hai den tan Thai Binh Duong.

Quan doi Mong Co voi luc luong ky binh thien chien danh dau thang day! Nhung ca ba lan xam luoc Dai Viet, voi 1 trieu quan, thi bi danh cho dai bai. Chu tuong Thoat Hoan phai chui vao ong dong de quan linh “keo” ve Van Nam. Toa Do, dung tuong khet tieng cua Mong Co bi roi dau. O Ma Nhi, Phan Tiep bi bat, tro thanh vat te song o mo cac vua Tran...

Lich su dan toc da ghi nhung chien cong oanh liet cua quan nhan thoi Tran vao the ki thu 13. Dung nhu loi tho hao sang cua Thuong tuong Thai su Tran Quang Khai sau chien thang chong Nguyen Mong: “Chuong Duong cuop giao giac/ Ham Tu giet quan thu/ Thai Binh nen gang suc/ Non nuoc ay ngan thu”.

“Dau toi chua roi xuong dat xin be ha dung lo”

Nam 1257, chua Mong Co la Mong Kha te co tren bo song Ke-Ru-Len roi xuat quan danh nha Tong (Trung Quoc).

Nguyen su (Trung Quoc) quyen 209 - phan An Nam truyen chep rang: “Ngot Luong Hop Dai (Hot Tat Liet chiem duoc nuoc Dai Ly de Ngot Luong Hop Dai o lai toan den danh chiem Giao Chi), dong binh o phia Bac Giao Chi, sai hai su gia sang truoc de du” (SDD –Tr.467). “Vua Tran Thai Tong khong nhung khong chiu dau hang ma cho bat giam su Mong Co” (VNSL-Tr.120).

Thang 12, ngay 12, tuong nha Nguyen la Ngot Luong Hop Dai xam lan Binh Le. Sach Nguyen su - Q.209 chep: “Thay su gia khong tro ve Ngot Luong Hop Dai ben sai bon Triet Triet Do dem 1000 nguoi chia duong ma tien den tren song Thao o Kinh Bac nuoc An Nam. Lai sai con la A Truat sang giup va nhom ngo tinh hinh. Nguoi Giao (Chi) cung bay nhieu binh ve. A Truat tro ve bao Ngot Luong Hop Dai de tien gap. Sai Triet Triet Do lam tien phong, A Truat di sau. Thang 12, hai quan hop nhau” (SDD-Tr.468).

Tran danh kinh dong ca the gioi cua nguoi Viet
Den tho nha Tran o Thai Binh.

Khi quan Mong Co do Ngot Luong Hop Dai tan cong Binh Le, vua Tran Thai Tong tu lam tuong doc chien di truoc xong pha ten dan. Tuong Le Phu Tran mot minh mot ngua ra vao tran giac, sac mat nhu thuong.

The giac manh, quan ta lui ve giu o song Lo. Giac ban ten nhu mua xuong thuyen cua vua, tuong Le Phu Tran lien lay van thuyen de chan ten cho vua. Truoc su hung han va manh me cua quan giac, vua Tran doi thuyen den hoi Thai su Tran Thu Do. Thai su tra loi: “Dau toi chua roi xuong dat thi be ha khong can lo ngai gi ca” (DVSKTT-Tr.470).

De tranh suc manh ban dau cua giac, quan ta chi de lai mot bo phan chan giac va lam nghi binh, con dai quan duoc lenh rut ve Hung Yen, Thien Truong, Long Hung...

Kinh thanh bo trong, nhan dan trong thanh Thang Long duoc lenh lam theo ke “Thanh Gia” (vuon khong nha trong). Quan Mong Co tien vao thanh Thang Long moi phat hien ca thanh trong rong, Ngot Luong Hop Dai tuc gian cho quan cuop boc, tan pha kinh thanh, giet ca nhung nam phu lao au trong thanh do khong so tan kip.

Luong thuc cua quan giac mang theo da can, kinh thanh lai trong khong, ke dich da co gang tien hanh nhung cuoc cuop pha o nhung vung xung quanh thanh Thang Long, nhung den dau chung cung gap suc chong tra manh liet cua nhan dan.

Khi quan Mong Co tien den Co So (nay la Yen So, huyen Hoai Duc, Ha Noi) nhan dan o day da doan ket chien dau, danh cho chung mot tran toi boi, xac giac ngon ngang, ngua chung sap ham, trung chong que, lu cuop nuoc tan tac bo chay. Khong co luong thao, binh si moi met, lai them khi hau khac nghiet, quan xam luoc Mong Co lam vao tinh the tien lui deu gap kho khan.

Nam chac thoi co thuan loi, ngay 24, thang Chap nam Nguyen Phong thu 7 (29/01/1258), vua Tran Thai Tong cung thai tu Hoang chi huy lau thuyen nguoc dong Thien Mac pha tan giac o Dong Bo Dau, chiem lai kinh thanh.

Bi danh bat khoi thanh Thang Long, quan Mong Co quay dau rut chay ve Van Nam. Dang luc chi mong thoat than thi chung lai bi dong bao dan toc vung nui o trai Quy Hoa theo trai chu la Ha Bong do ra tap kich. Bi danh bat ngo, quan giac bo chay thao than va bi thiet hai nang ne ve nguoi, vu khi, quan trang.

Tran danh kinh dong ca the gioi cua nguoi Viet
Tuong Tran Hung Dao.

Khac han voi thai do nghenh ngang hung han khi tien quan vuot bien gioi vao Dai Viet, bon xam luoc Mong Co bi danh cho tan tac, manh ai nay chay, len lut tim duong vuot bien gioi tron chay cho nhanh. Chung khong con dam nghi den chuyen cuop boc, dot pha, tranh gianh cua cai nhu khi moi sang.

De che gieu thai do do cua chung, nguoi thoi bay gio da goi chung bang cai ten rat mia mai la “Giac Phat”. Cuoi thang Gieng (1258), dich hoan toan rut khoi nuoc ta.

Thang loi cua quan dan Dai Viet trong chien tranh lan thu nhat chong Mong Nguyen, khong nhung da bao ve duoc nen doc lap dan toc ma con be gay mot gong kim cua quan Mong Co dinh chiem xong nuoc ta thi tan cong vao mien Nam Trung Quoc tieu diet trieu dinh nha Nam Tong.

Cuoc chien dau va chien thang nam Nguyen Phong thu 7 do vua Tran Thai Tong va tuong quoc Tran Thu Do chi huy mai mai la niem tu hao duoc ghi tren nhung trang su ve vang cua dan toc Viet Nam anh hung.

Vua Tran Nhan Tong sau nay trong bai tho “Ngay Xuan yet bai Chieu Lang” da viet: “Bach dau quan si tai .... Vang vang thuyet nguyen phong...” (Nguoi linh gia dau bac ... Ke mai chuyen nguyen phong).

“Chuong Duong cuop giao giac, Ham tu bat quan thu”

Sau khi danh do nha Nam Tong (1279) chiem toan bo lanh tho Trung Quoc, quan Mong Co ngay cang tro nen hung manh. Hot Tat Liet doi quoc hieu la Dai Nguyen, chuan bi nhung cuoc vien chinh moi de thuc hien muu do thong tri the gioi.

O phia Dong chung chuan bi danh Nhat Ban, phia Nam am muu chiem cac nuoc Dong Nam Chau A roi tien danh An Do...

Muc tieu dau tien de tran xuong Dong Nam A cua quan Nguyen la phai san bang duoc Dai Viet. Hot Tat Liet huy dong mot doi quan tinh nhue, dong toi 60 van nguoi do con trai cua y la Tran Nam Vuong Thoat Hoan chi huy. Ben canh Thoat Hoan con co hang chuc vien tuong noi tieng khac do la A-Rich-Kha-A, O Ma Nhi, Ly Hang, Ly Quan, Toa Do...

Tran danh kinh dong ca the gioi cua nguoi Viet
Lang mo mot vi vua Tran o Quang Ninh.

Nam 1282 Hot Tat Liet cu Toa Do dan 10 van quan tan cong Chiem Thanh, sau do Thoat Hoan dem quan tan cong nuoc Dai Viet o phia Bac, tao the gong kim kep quan ta vao giua hai dao quan Mong Co de tieu diet.

Sau chien thang nam 1258, nha Tran chu truong vua mem deo, vua kien quyet duy tri quan he ngoai giao voi nha Nguyen. Nhung mat khac van chu dong tich cuc chuan bi doi pho voi am muu xam luoc lan thu hai cua giac.

Nam 1282 nha Tran khong dong y cho quan Nguyen muon duong sang danh Chiem Thanh, vi biet day la ke “Gia do diet quac” cua giac. Trai lai quan ta con tich cuc ung ho Chiem Thanh chong quan Nguyen xam luoc.

Truoc am muu xam luoc cua Nha Nguyen ngay cang lo ro, thang 10 (1282) vua Tran to chuc hoi nghi Binh Than cung trieu dinh va cac vuong hau ban ke chong giac.

Vi tuong tai Tran Quoc Tuan duoc cu lam Quoc cong tiet che thong linh toan quan. Hoi nghi vuong hau bach quan o Binh Than co muc dich “ban ke danh phong” va “chia quan giu noi hiem yeu”.

Tran Quoc Toan tuy tuoi con nho, khong duoc du hop da bop nat qua cam cam trong tay ma khong biet. Sau do Quoc Toan tro ve lap mot doi quan hon nghin nguoi, sam vu khi, dong chien thuyen cho ngay giet giac cuu nuoc. Tren la co cua nguoi thieu nien anh dung do co 6 chu: “Pha cuong dich, bao hoang an” (Pha giac manh, bao on vua).

Thang 8, nam Giap Than (1284) quan ta hoi quan tai ben Dong Bo Dau tong cong co tren 20 van quan duyet binh, sau do cac tuong Tran Binh Trong, Tran Khanh Du, Tran Quang Khai... duoc lenh dem quan tran giu cac vung xung yeu trong nuoc de de phong quan Nguyen tran sang.

Sau do vua Tran cho trieu tap hoi nghi Dien Hong lich su, nham dong vien su nhat tri chong giac trong nhan dan. Yen tiec duoc mo ra tai them dien Dien Hong, Vua hoi cac bo lao: “The giac manh, chung ta nen hoa hay nen danh?”. Tra loi cho cau hoi cua vua Tran la tieng ho vang cua hang van phu lao “Danh, Danh”, “van nguoi cung noi nhu tu mot mieng” (Toan thu).

Tieng ho “Danh” cua cac phu lao o dien Dien Hong bieu lo tinh than quyet chien cua toan dan Dai Viet. Dung nhu nguoi xua noi: “Nguoi cheo thuyen la dan, nguoi lat thuyen cung la dan” (Suc dan manh nhu song bien). Nhung bac phu lao, nhung dai bieu co uy tin cua nhan dan da noi len tieng noi cua ca dan toc.

Hoi nghi Dien Hong la mot cuoc hop mat dai bieu rong khap cua toan dan - doc nhat vo nhi trong lich su phong kien Viet Nam. Cac bo lao da mang toi cho vua Tran va trieu dinh cau tra loi quyet chien cua nhan dan o cac lo trong ca nuoc, va cung mang tu Thang Long ve moi mien que cai khong khi quyet tam chong giac giu nuoc cua hoi nghi Dien Hong va quyet tam cua Trieu dinh.

Nha su hoc Ngo Sy Lien sau nay nhan xet: “Do la Thanh Tong (chi vua Tran) muon xem su ai ho thanh that cua ha dan va muon cho ho nghe du hoi ma cam kich phat len” (Toan thu –Q.5-Tr.44b). Voi long yeu nuoc nong nan, o khap cac lo (thoi Tran chia nuoc lam cac phu - lo) trong nuoc co nhung bang treo dong chu: “Tat ca cac quan huyen trong nuoc, neu co giac ngoai den phai lieu chet ma danh, neu suc khong dich noi thi cho phep lan tranh vao rung nui, khong duoc dau hang” (Theo sach Nguyen su cua Trung Quoc – Q.209-Tr.7).

Trong khong khi: “Quyet tu cho To quoc quoc sinh” ay thi loi hich cua Tran Quoc Tuan kich dong long dan va quan hao huc quyet tam bao ve To quoc cua minh: “...Nay cac nguoi ngoi nhin chu nhuc ma khong biet lo, than chiu quoc si ma khong biet then, lam tuong trieu dinh phai hau quan giac ma khong biet tuc, nghe nhac Thai thuong dai yen Nguy su ma khong biet cam. Hoac lay viec choi ga lam vui dua, hoac lay viec danh bac lam tieu khien... hoac quyen luyen vo con, hoac lo lam giau ma quen viec nuoc... neu co giac Mong That tran sang... tien cua dau nhieu khong mua duoc dau giac, cho san tuy khoe khong duoi duoc quan thu... luc bay gio chu toi nha ta cung bi bat dau xot biet chung nao; chang nhung thai ap cua ta khong con, ma bong loc cac nguoi cung ve tay ke khac, chang nhung gia quyen ta bi duoi, ma vo con cac nguoi cung bi bat di, chang nhung than ta kiep nay chiu nhuc, roi den tram nam sau, tieng do khon rua, ten xau con luu... Luc bay gio, dau cac nguoi muon vui choi phong co duoc khong?

....Vi sao vay? Giac Mong That voi ta la ke thu khong doi troi chung, ma cac nguoi cu diem nhien khong muon rua nhuc, khong lo tru hung, lai khong day quan si, chang khac nao quay mui giao ma chiu dau hang, gio tay khong ma chiu thua giac. Neu vay, roi day sau khi dep yen quan giac, muon doi de then, ha con mat mui nao dung trong coi troi che dat phu nay nua. Vay ta viet bai hich nay de cac nguoi biet ro long ta”.

Bai hich da xoay vao nhung noi uat uc cam thu cua tuong si trong bao nhieu nam, ma phan kich tinh than chien dau cua ho. Quan si hung huc dung khi. Khong mot nguoi linh nao khong thay vinh du khi duoc hy sinh cuu nuoc. Cac chien sy va nhieu nguoi dan da tu chich vao tay hai chu Sat That (Giet giac Mong Co) de noi len quyet tam cua minh.

Cuoi nam 1284 Thoat Hoan tien quan vao nuoc ta, giac chia quan lam 2 mui danh vao Tuyen Quang va Lang Son. Quan ta chu dong chan giac o Lang Son roi lui vao khu vuc o Lang Giang va Van Kiep.

Thoat Hoan lien chia quan lam ba mui y dinh vay chat quan ta de tieu diet. Voi the manh nhu che tre, quan giac tuong chung nhu de bep ngay duoc quan dan Dai Viet, nhung voi thien tai quan su cua minh, Tran Quoc Tuan da nhan dinh: “Nguyen binh khi nhue dang hung, kip danh chang bang kien thu cho suy”.

Sau do quan ta rut lui de bao toan luc luong theo 2 huong Thang Long – Thien Truong va mot bo phan rut ve huong Quang Yen de giac lam tuong vua quan trieu Tran chay ra bien.

Ngay 13 thang Gieng (19/2/1285), quan Nguyen tien vao kinh thanh Thang Long da bi bo trong. Toa Do luc nay duoc lenh dem quan tu Chiem Thanh tien ra, Thoat Hoan cho O Ma Nhi dan quan di duong bien de tiep ung cho Toa Do danh tu phia Nam danh ra.

Tuong Tran Quang Khai cua ta dung loi danh chan tung buoc, da chan dung duoc quan Toa Do o giap gioi giua Thanh Hoa va Nghe An, ngan khong cho chung ra Bac.

Thang 2 (1285) dich cho quan tien xuong Hung Yen, Ha Nam, Thien Truong, truy kich dai quan cua vua Tran. Tai bai Da Mac (Hung Yen) tuong Tran Binh Trong duoc lenh chan quan truy duoi cua giac de vua va Dai quan di chuyen ve Thien Truong, Thanh Hoa.

Khi dai quan Nguyen toi, Tran Binh Trong ta xung huu dot chien dau, nhung vi dich dong ta it nen cuoi cung ong bi sa vao tay giac. Thoat Hoan muon du hang nen hoi ong rang: “Co muon lam vuong dat Bac khong?” Tran Binh Trong quat len: “Ta tha lam quy nuoc Nam, chu khong them lam vuong dat Bac”....

Thoat Hoan thay khong du duoc ong lien sai quan dem chem. Vua, quan, quan trieu dinh nha Tran nghe tin Tran Binh Trong tu tiet ai cung to long thuong xot.

Di doi voi ke “Vuon khong nha trong”, khap noi dan binh ket hop voi quan linh nha Tran to chuc danh up, danh tia, danh phuc kich cac toan quan dich di suc sao cuop boc luong thao.

Do chu quan tuong co the thang nhanh, quan Nguyen khong tai theo nhieu luong thuc vi the bi thieu an, long quan ngay cang hoang mang dao dong. Hai mui quan giac do Thoat Hoan va Toa Do chi huy lai khong ket hop duoc voi nhau.

De go the bi, Thoat Hoan thuc giuc Toa Do nhanh chong tien ra Bac de hoi quan voi y cho co them suc manh tiep tuc tan cong Dai Viet. Nam duoc y do cua giac, thay thoi co da den. Vua Tran va Tran Quoc Tuan quyet dinh nham dao quan Toa Do de danh tran phu dau tieu diet dich.

Dao quan Toa Do danh nhau voi Tran Quang Khai o Thanh Hoa va Nghe An mai khong thang duoc, luong thuc ngay mot kiet que. Nhan lenh cua Thoat Hoan phai ra Bac hoi quan nen y cung O Ma Nhi xuong thuyen vuot bien de ra Thang Long.

Vua Tran va Tran Quoc Tuan chu truong khong de cho giac hoi quan vi the den thang Tu (1284) da cu Chieu Van Vuong Tran Nhat Duat lam tuong chi huy, Tran Quoc Toan lam pho tuong cung tuong quan Nguyen Khoai dem 5 van quan phuc kich o khu vuc ben Ham Tu (thuoc Dong An, Hung Yen). Quan ta dua vao lau say moc um tum hai ben bo song de don danh thuyen giac.

Tran dia mai phuc vua xong thi thuyen chien cua Toa Do dan xac toi. Quan ta tu nhieu phia bo vay dich. Luc do, trong doi quan cua tuong Tran Nhat Duat con co Trieu Trung la tuong nha Tong (dau quan trong dao quan cua Tran Nhat Duat) mac ao, deo cung ten nhu quan Tong, cung tham gia chien dau rat dung manh danh duoi quan Nguyen.

Bi danh up bat ngo quan Nguyen hoang loan nhay xuong song va bi thiet hai rat nang. So quan con lai theo Toa Do rut ra cua bien Thien Truong. Thoi co da den, Hung Dao Vuong va vua Tran chu dong tan cong Thanh Thang Long. Thuc hien sach luoc da duoc vach ra, quan ra da danh mot tran rat lon va rat tai tinh, do la tran: Chuong Duong.

Luc do Dai quan cua Thoat Hoan dong o Thang Long, chien thuyen giac dong o ben Chuong Duong.

Sau chien thang Ham Tu, Chieu Minh Vuong Tran Quang Khai, Hoai Van Hau Tran Quoc Toan cung cac tuong khac duoc lenh dem quan danh Chuong Duong va thanh Thang Long.

Phoi hop voi quan chu luc cua trieu dinh con co cac dao quan binh o cac lo do Tran Thong, Nguyen Kha Lap, Nguyen Tuyen chi huy. Day la tran ma quan ta da phoi hop tot giua quan dia phuong va dan binh voi quan trieu dinh.

Quan ta bi mat danh up, ap sat thuy trai giac. Bi bat ngo, quan giac dap len nhau ma chay len bo de tron ve thanh Thang Long. Quan ta truy sat dich toi sat chan thanh. Thoat Hoan voi dem dai quan ra tan cong, quan ta gia vo thua chay, dich duoi theo lien bi phuc binh cua Tran Quang Khai do ra danh, quan Nguyen phai bo thanh Thang Long chay qua song Hong, roi dong quan tai vung Kinh Bac (Bac Ninh).

Tai lieu thoi Nguyen (Trung Quoc) chep: “Thuy luc den danh vao dai doanh, vay thanh may vong, quan quan (chi quan Nguyen) som toi danh khon don, thieu thon luong thuc, khi gioi deu het”.

Tran Quang Khai dem quan vao thanh Thang Long, cam khai truoc su dung manh cua dung si va nhan dan, ong da viet: “Chuong Duong cuop giao giac/ Ham Tu giet quan thu/ Thai Binh nen gang suc/ Non nuoc ay ngan thu”.

Toa Do dong quan o Thien Truong, cach Thoat Hoan hon 200 dam (khong biet Thoat Hoan da thua tran, thoat chay ve Bac Giang roi), cho quan tien ve song Thien Mac voi y do hop quan voi Thoat Hoan. Khi duoc tin Thoat Hoan da bai tran, Toa Do lien rut quan ve dong o Tay Ket, roi cho nguoi di do tin tuc cua Thoat Hoan.

Sau chien thang Ham Tu, Chuong Duong, Tran Hung Dao cho cac tuong Tran Nhat Duat, Tran Quang Khai chia quan chan cac nga duong khong cho Thoat Hoan va Toa Do thong tin duoc voi nhau. Tiep do Hung Dao Vuong dem binh den Tay Ket chia quan danh trai quan Nguyen va dat phuc binh de bat Toa Do.

Quan ta cang danh cang hang, quan Nguyen dich khong noi, Toa Do va O Ma Nhi dem tan quan chay len bo tim duong bo ra bien, nhung bi phuc binh cua ta vay danh.

Tuong truyen tuong quan Nguyen Khoai da ban chet Toa Do tai tran, con O Ma Nhi tim duong chay vao Thanh Hoa. Khi bi quan ta truy duoi y da voi vang xuong thuyen, mot minh lieu chet chay ra bien tron ve Trung Quoc.

Tran Tay Ket dien ra vao thang 5/1285, quan ta tieu diet toan bo 8 van quan cua Toa Do (bat song hon 5 van quan Nguyen va hang tram chien thuyen cung nhieu khi gioi khong ke xiet. Vien tuong Toa Do bi chem roi dau, nhung voi tam long nhan dao cua minh, vua Tran Nhan Tong da sai kham liem va lam le mai tang cho y rat chu dao).

Tin Toa Do bi chem, O Ma Nhi bo chay ra bien lam cho Thoat Hoan va tuong si Nguyen deu hoang so, ban cach chuon ve nuoc.

Hung Dao Vuong doan biet y do thao chay cua Thoat Hoan lien sai tuong Nguyen Khoai va Pham Ngu Lao dan 3 van quan phuc san o ben song Van Kiep. Hai con ong la Hung Vo Nhan Nhan va Hung Hieu Vuong Uy dan 3 van quan theo duong Hai Duong ra Quang Yen, muc dich khong cho dich chay ve chau Tu Minh (Trung Quoc).

Hung Dao Vuong tu minh dan dai quan tan cong Thoat Hoan o Bac Giang, tieu diet mot bo phan lon quan giac. Thoat Hoan co song co chet chay ve Van Kiep, tuong da thoat than nao ngo y chua kip hoan hon thi bi phuc binh cua ta do ra danh.

Quan giac voi va bac cau phao vuot song Sach (tuc song Thuong doan chay qua vung Van Kiep). Canh quan cua Vien ta thua Tang-Gu-Tai chua kip chay thi bi quan mai phuc cua ta tu trong rung do ra danh, khien chung xo dap nhau chay lam dut ca cau phao, nga xuong song chet duoi rat nhieu.

Quan ta do tuong Nguyen Khoai chi huy lien tiep truy kich giac. Tuong Nguyen la Ly Hang bi ban chet. Thoat Hoan, Phan Tiep, A-Bat-Xich, Ly Quan co suc danh mo duong mau ma chay.

Bi quan ra duoi riet, khong con cach nao khac de thoat than vi the Thoat Hoan phai chui vao cai ong dong de len tren xe bat quan linh keo chay ve phia bien gioi. Den gan chau Tu Minh, tuong da thoat than, quan giac dinh nghi ngoi roi di tiep nao ngo lai bi Hung Vo Vuong Nghien va Hung Hieu Vuong Uy “giang ro” cho san tu truoc, do ra danh.

Ly Quan bi ten ban chet ngay tai tran, con Thoat Hoan nho co A-Bat-Xich co chet bao ve nen chay thoat than ve ben kia bien gioi.

Voi doi quan 60 van nguoi, luc dau hung ho vuot bien gioi keo sang, khi the oai phong lung lay bao nhieu thi khi ve nhu con “Cau” cup duoi, luon lach, chui lui tim duong thoat chay ve nuoc. Chi trong vong 6 thang (thang Chap, 1284 den thang 6-1285, quan dan Dai Viet da danh duoi hon nua trieu quan xam luoc ra khoi bo coi. Do la nho vua toi dong long, toan dan quyet chi dong tam, dong suc danh duoi quan thu de bao ve que huong dat nuoc.

“Xa tac hai phen chon ngua da/ Non song ngan thuo vung au vang”

Nha su hoc Ba Tu Ra-xit-ut-din o the ki 13 da viet ve cuoc khang chien oai hung cua nguoi Giao Chi (Dai Viet) trong cuoc khang chien chong Nguyen Mong voi nhung tu sau: “Nuoc do co vuong quoc rieng, khong than phuc Han (Vua Mong Co), Tu Gan (Thoat Hoan) con trai cua Han chi huy doi quan de ngan ngua va chong lai nhung ai khong khuat phuc. Mot lan Tu Gan dem quan vao nuoc do, chiem lay cac thanh thi ven bien va thong tri o day, nhung bong nhien xuat hien nhung doi quan (Giao Chi) tu bien, tu rung, tu nui, danh tan quan Tu Gan (Thoat Hoan) dang cuop boc, Tu Gan tron thoat”.

Trong luc quan dan Dai Viet han hoan mung chien thang thi o ben kia bien gioi Hot Tat Liet noi gian vi Thoat Hoan bi that tran nang ne. Nong long can mot can cu de lam ban dap tien hanh xam luoc Dong Nam A nen vua nha Nguyen gap rut cho ngung viec tan cong Nhat Ban va sai dong tren 300 chien thuyen, lenh cho ba tinh Giao Hai - Ho Quang – Giang Tay tu tap quan si dinh den thang 8/1285 thi dem quan theo duong Chau Kham, Chau Liem tien danh Dai Viet de bao thu.

Rut kinh nghiem hai lan that bai truoc vi thieu luong thuc, lan nay vua Nguyen dac biet chu trong den viec cho thuyen tai luong di theo va vach sach luoc tan cong theo loi: “tam an dan da”.

Tran danh kinh dong ca the gioi cua nguoi Viet
Lang mo nhu go nui cua vua Tran o Thai Binh.

Biet tin quan Nguyen chuan bi luc luong tan cong Dai Viet, vua Tran hoi Hung Dao Vuong: “The giac nam nay the nao?” Tran Hung Dao tra loi: “Nam nay danh giac nhan”. Vua Tran va Tran Quoc Tuan chia quan chan dich o cac huong Lao Cai, Lang Son, Quang Yen, Van Kiep (Hai Duong) va Long Hung (Thai Binh).

“Nha Nguyen phat quan o 3 sanh Giao Hoai, Giang Tay, Ho Quang. Quan Mong Co, quan Han Nam cung quan Van Nam va quan nguoi Le o 4 chau ngoai bien chia duong vao cuop. Sai bon Van Ho Truong Van Ho cho 70 van hoc luong theo duong bien, lai dat Chinh Giao Chi hanh thuong Thu sanh, cho Ao-lo-xich lam Binh Chuong Su, O Ma Nhi va Phan Tiep lam tham tri chinh su phu trach, deu su tiet che cua Tran Nam Vuong” (DVSKTT-Tr.517).

Quan Nguyen chiem nui Pha Lai va nui Chi Linh de lap can cu; Trinh Bang Phi dem 2 van binh danh don Van Kiep cua ta. O Ma Nhi va A-bat-Xich dan quan tu song Luc Dau danh xuong Hong Ha.

Hung Dao Vuong lien rut quan ve giu Thang Long, nhung sau bi O Ma Nhi bam riet, thuong hoang va vua Tran Nhan Tong xuong thuyen di ra cua bien Thien Truong. O Ma Nhi dem quan duoi theo nhung khong kip, lien keo quan ve Long Hung (Tien Duc, Hung Ha, Thai Binh noi co mo to tien nha Tran o do). Y cho nguoi dao pha lang mo cua nha Tran.

Thoat Hoan dem binh ma vay danh Thang Long, chiem duoc thanh nhung sau lai phai rut ve can cu Van Kiep, Chi Linh, Pha Lai. Hung Dao Vuong cung tien quan toi lap trai de chong choi voi giac.

Ngay Mau Tuat, 12/12 (17/12/1287) chien thuyen cua bon O Ma Nhi (xuat phat tu cang Kham Chau) tien vao nuoc ta. Doan thuyen van tai luong thuc cua Truong Ho vi cho qua nang nen bi tut lai phia sau. May ngay sau thuyen giac qua cua bien Van Ninh (Mong Cai), den Ngoc Son chung gap tuong Nhan Duc Hau Tran Gia phuc binh tren nui phuc danh. Chien thuyen giac lien vay boc lai danh nhau voi quan ta va qua duoc cua Ngoc Son.

Thuyen cua O Ma Nhi va Phan Tiep tien vao cua An Bang (Quang Yen) giao chien voi thuy quan cua tuong Tran Khanh Du, quan ta bi ton that phai rut lui. O Ma Nhi sau khi qua duoc cua An Bang da theo song Bach Dang tien ve Van Kiep. Han tuong rang quan ta bi danh tan khong the ngan can noi doan thuyen luong di sau nen han cu tien thang khong chu y den viec bao ve cho Truong Van Ho.

Khi thuy quan nha Nguyen danh Van Don, Hung Dao Vuong da trao quyen chi huy giai bien thuy cho pho tuong la Tran Khanh Du. Nghe tin Tran Khanh Du thua tran, vua Tran lien sai trung su den bat Khanh Du dua ve cua khuyet de tri toi. Khanh Du noi voi Trung su rang: “Lay quan luat ma xu, toi xin chiu toi, nhung xin hoan cho vai ba ngay, de toi lap cong chuoc toi roi hay chiu bua riu cua hoang thuong cung chua muon”.

Trung su nghe theo loi khuyen, Khanh Du doan biet quan chu luc giac di roi, thuyen luong tat phai theo sau, ben tap hop so quan con lai bo tri phuc kich cho giac toi. Qua nhien moi viec dien ra dung nhu du doan cua vi tuong muu tri do.

Thang 12 am lich (2/2/1288) doan thuyen cho luong cua Truong Ho keo vao vung bien Van Don. Vi chu quan cho rang O Ma Nhi di truoc da don duong cho minh roi nen Truong Ho khong de phong, bi lot vao tran dia phuc kich cua thuy quan ta.

Khi giac toi, bat gio thuy quan ta do Tran Khanh Du ap toi danh, giac Nguyen bi thua, Truong Van Ho co gang tien ve phia dat lien, nhung den bien Luc Thuy (Cua Luc, Hon Gai) thi thuy quan ta do ra danh cang dong. Truong Van Ho dai bai do ca luong thuc xuong bien, tron chay ve Quynh Chau (Hai Nam). Quan ta “bat duoc quan luong khi gioi cua giac nhieu khong ke xiet, tu binh cung rat dong” (Toan thu- Q.5.Tr-53a).

Theo sach Nguyen su (Trung Quoc – Q.209 – An Nam Truyen – Tr.10a) thi so luong thuc mat hon 14.300 thach. Con so do chac con xa thuc te vi Truong Van Ho chi chay thoat tren mot chiec thuyen nho ve Quynh Chau. Trieu dinh da tha toi cho Tran Khanh Du.

Tran Quoc Tuan cho rang de lam cho quan si dich chong “nga long, bay gio moi de pha”. Vi the quan ta da tha tu binh, bao tin thuyen luong cua Truong Ho da bi tieu diet cho Thoat Hoan biet. Truoc tinh hinh o khong yen, luong thuc lai bi mat, long quan dao dong, Thoat Hoan buoc phai co thu o Van Kiep”.

Quan Nguyen sau khi dai bai o Van Don luong thao ngay cang kiet que, Thoat Hoan muon cho nguoi ve Trung Quoc cau vien va lay them luong, nhung Hung Dao Vuong da sai nguoi giu nui Ky Cap va ai Nu Nhi o Lang Son chan bat nhung ten tham tu duoc phai ve Trung Quoc.

Cuoi cung biet rang o lai chi chuoc lay that bai, Thoat Hoan quyet dinh rut quan ve nuoc. Quan Nguyen chia lam hai duong thuy bo de rut. Dao quan thuy do O Ma Nhi, Phan Tiep chi huy theo duong song Bach Dang di truoc. Dao quan bo gom co Trinh Bang Phi, Truong Quan duoc giao chan hau de Thoat Hoan cung A-bat-xich, Ao-loi-xich, Truong Ngoc tim duong rut chay.

Hung Dao Vuong doan biet duoc am muu cua giac, ben sai tuong Nguyen Khoai dan quan len qua duong tat len me thuong luu song Bach Dang chat go, deo nhon dau, bit sat, dong tren song roi dat phuc binh cho doi den luc thuy trieu len thi dem thuyen ra khieu chien.

Tuong quan Pham Ngu Lao, Nguyen The Nghia duoc lenh dan quan len mai phuc o ai Noi Bang (thuoc Lang Son) cho cho quan bo cua Thoat Hoan chay den do thi do ra danh.

Ke hoach chien dau da duoc vach ra, khi duoc tin O Ma Nhi da keo quan sap ve den Bach Dang, Hung Dao Vuong tu can cu A Sao (nay thuoc xa An Dong va An Thai, huyen Quynh Phu, tinh Thai Binh) keo quan ve song Hoa di danh giac. Con voi chien cua nguoi bi sa lay khi vuot song, ua nuoc mat nhin theo chu tuong. Hung Dao Vuong chi guom xuong dong song Hoa ma the rang: “Tran nay chua pha xong giac Nguyen thi khong ve ben song nay nua”.

Quan si ai nay deu xin quyet chien. Doan quan nham huong Bach Dang Giang thang tien. Khi chien thuyen cua O Ma Nhi, Phan Tiep theo dong Bach Dang rut chay thi bat ngo tuong Nguyen Khoai dan chien thuyen tu bo song lao ra khieu chien.

O Ma Nhi tuc gian thuc quan xong vao danh, Nguyen Khoai lien quay thuyen chay. Bay gio dang luc thuy trieu len cao, mat song rong menh mang, O Ma Nhi cu viec thuc thuyen duoi theo. Nguyen Khoai nhu cho quan Nguyen qua khoi cho dong coc, roi moi ho quan quay thuyen lai quyet chien voi giac.

Tran chien tren song dien ra ac liet, dung luc do dai quan cua Hung Dao Vuong keo toi tiep vien cho Nguyen Khoai. O Ma Nhi, Phan Tiep thay quan tiep vien rat dong, lien quay thuyen chay tro lai.

Khi chay den khuc song co coc dong thi nuoc thuy trieu da rut xuong, coc nhon nho len, thuyen cua quan Nguyen huc vao coc do nghieng, do ngua, phan nhieu bi vo va dam.

Quan ta cang danh cang hang quan Nguyen phan bi chet duoi rat nhieu, phan bi trung ten, giao mac, mau chay loang do ca khuc song. Quan ta bat duoc hon 400 chien thuyen giac. Noi Minh Tu Do Hanh bat duoc O Ma Nhi, Tich Le Co Ngoc. Cac tuong khac nhu Phan Tiep cung bi bat song tai tran.

Tran Bach Dang Giang dien ra vao thang 3 nam Mau Ty (1288), mai mai la niem tu hao ve tai dung binh va tinh than chien dau dung cam cua tuong linh va binh si cung nhan dan thoi Tran trong dau tranh bao ve doc lap dan toc.

Tin thuy quan bi danh tan, O Ma Nhi cung cac tuong bi bat da nhanh chong duoc chuyen cho Thoat Hoan. Qua hoang so, toan quan di duong bo theo lenh cua Thoat Hoan voi rut chay. Khi ve den ai Noi Bang, bong bi quan phuc cua Pham Ngu Lao do ra danh. Cac tuong nguyen lieu chet bao ve Thoat Hoan, chung vua danh vua chay.

Tuong Nguyen la Truong Quan dan 3000 linh di doan hau co suc chan quan truy duoi cua ta, nhung y da bi Pham Ngu Lao chem chet. Thoat Hoan chay thoat duoc ra cua ai, quan si 10 phan chi con lai 5, 6 phan.

Dai quan cua Thoat Hoan dang di, bong co tin bao tu cua ai Nu Nhi den nui Ky Cap (hon 100 dam), cho nao cung co don ai cua quan Dai Viet. Nghe tin ay, quan si nha Nguyen deu xon xao so hai, o phia sau lai nghe tieng am am cua quan quan duoi theo.

Thoat Hoan voi sai A-bat-xich, Truong Ngoc dan quan di truoc mo duong, Ao-loi-xich di doan hau. Tren duong thao chay ve nuoc hai vien tuong Nguyen la A-bat-xich va Truong Ngoc da bi quan phuc kich cua ta ban chet. Trinh Bang Phi lieu mang song dua Thoat Hoan chay ra Dan Ky, qua Loc Chau roi len lut theo duong rung chui lui chay thoat ve chau Tu Minh (Trung Quoc).

Dat nuoc sach bong quan xam luoc: “Hai vua tro ve phu Long Hung (Thai Binh) dem cac bai tuong cua giac bi bat la Tich Le Co Ngoc va O Ma Nhi, Tham Chinh Sam Doai, Phan Tiep... cung voi cac vien tuong van ho, thien ho lam le dang mung thang tran o Chieu Lang (Tien Duc – Hung Ha – Thai Binh).

Truoc do quan Nguyen da dao Chieu Lang, muon pha di nhung khong xam pham duoc den quan tai. Den khi giac bi thua, chan ngua da o lang deu bi lam bun. Do la do than linh ngam giup vay.

Vua lam le yet co cau tho rang: “Xa tac luong hoi lao thach ma/ Son ha thien co dien kim au, (Xa tac hai phen chon ngua da/ Non song nghin thuo vung au vang).

Khong day 5 thang, quan dan ta da tieu diet 30 van quan Nguyen, danh bai cuoc xam luoc lan thu ba va cung la lan cuoi cung cua chung doi voi Dai Viet. Khong nhung the, con ngan chan duoc am muu banh truong cua de quoc Nguyen Mong dinh tan cong xuong Dong Nam Chau A va tan cong ca Nhat Ban.

Vi bi hao binh ton tuong, lai khong chiem duoc Dai Viet nen am muu tren da bi huy bo. Chien cong ba lan thang Nguyen Mong cua dan toc ta mai mai la niem tu hao cua cac the he con dan nuoc Dai Viet xua va nuoc Viet Nam ngay nay trong su nghiep bao ve non song gam voc cua to tien de lai.

Nhung bai viet ve lang mo vua Tran

» Loi xot xa truoc lang mo cua cac vi vua Tran
» Hanh trinh tim noi vua Tran Nhan Tong bang ha
» Ung xu the nao voi lang mo cac vua Tran? (ky cuoi)
» Tra gia khi pha mo vua Tran (ky 7)
» Cuoc cuop pha tan khoc mo vua Tran Nghe Tong (ky 6)
» Dau long lang mo 3 vi vua Tran tren dinh nui (ky 3)
» Di cot 3 vi vua Tran o Thai Binh hay Quang Ninh? (ky 2)
» Nhung chuyen kho tin o “nghia dia” cac vua Tran (ky 1)


Nha su hoc Dang Hung
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Tìm hiểu: Mong Co, Dai Viet, Trung Quoc, Thai Binh, Van Kiep, Phan Tiep, Hoi nghi Dien Hong, o Ma Nhi, Hung Dao Vuong, Thanh Thang Long, Tran Quang Khai, Thoat Hoan, Vua Tran, Quan Nguyen, Toa Do, tuong

Xem Bản Tiếng Việt Có Dấu: Trận đánh kinh động cả thế giới của người Việt

Ban co the doc ban tieng Viet co dau cua bai viet Trận đánh kinh động cả thế giới của người Việt bang cach nhan chuot vao duong dan tren.

Lien he ve tin Tran danh kinh dong ca the gioi cua nguoi Viet

Nhan xet, hay lien he ve tin Tran danh kinh dong ca the gioi cua nguoi Viet co the gui bang duong dan o duoi. Ban nen gui kem tieu de bai viet Tran danh kinh dong ca the gioi cua nguoi Viet de lam tham khao. Bai viet nay thuoc chuyen de Phong su tong hop trong chuyen muc Phong su.

Cac tin khac:

Xem tiep ... Phong su tong hop
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