Tieu su Chu tich Ho Chi Minh

Tags: Nguyen Ai Quoc, Lien Xo, Trung Quoc, Quang Chau, Chu tich Ho Chi Minh, Dang Lao Dong Viet Nam, Quoc Te Cong San, lanh dao nhan dan, Giai phong mien Nam, dang cong san, nuoc Viet Nam, Nguoi cong san, cuoc chien tranh, Dan Viet, cong


Tieu su Chu tich Ho Chi Minh
Chu tich Ho Chi Minh (1890- 1969)
Cuoc doi cua Chu tich Ho Chi Minh la mot cuoc doi trong sang cao dep cua mot nguoi cong san vi dai, mot anh hung dan toc kiet xuat, mot chien si quoc te loi lac, da dau tranh khong met moi va hien dang ca doi minh vi To quoc, vi nhan dan, vi ly tuong cong san chu nghia, vi doc lap, tu do cua cac dan toc, vi hoa binh va cong ly tren the gioi.

Chu tich Ho Chi Minh (luc nho ten la Nguyen Sinh Cung khi di hoc la Nguyen Tat Thanh, trong nhieu nam hoat dong cach mang lay ten la Nguyen Ai Quoc va nhieu bi danh, but danh khac) sinh ngay 19 thang 5 nam 1890 o Kim Liem huyen Nam Dan, tinh Nghe An, mat ngay 2 thang 9 nam 1969 tai Ha Noi.

Nguoi sinh ra trong mot gia dinh nha nho yeu nuoc lon len o mot dia phuong co truyen thong yeu nuoc anh dung chong giac ngoai xam. Song trong hoan canh dat nuoc chim duoi ach do ho cua thuc dan Phap, thoi nien thieu va thanh nien cua Nguoi da chung kien noi kho cuc cua dong bao va nhung phong trao dau tranh chong thuc dan. Nguoi som co chi duoi thuc dan, gianh doc lap cho dat nuoc dem lai tu do, hanh phuc cho dong bao

Voi tinh cam yeu nuoc thuong dan vo han, nam 1911 Nguoi da roi To quoc di sang phuong Tay de tim con duong giai phong dan toc.

Tu nam 1912 den nam l917, Nguyen Tat Thanh den nhieu nuoc o Chau A, Chau Au, Chau My, chau Phi, song hoa minh voi nhan dan lao dong, Nguoi thong cam sau sac cuoc song kho cuc cua nhan dan lao dong va cac dan toc thuoc dia cung nhu nguyen vong thieng lieng cua ho. Nguoi som nhan thuc duoc cuoc dau tranh giai phong dan toc cua nhan dan Viet Nam la mot bo phan trong cuoc dau tranh chung cua nhan dan the gioi. Nguoi da hoat dong tich cuc nham doan ket nhan dan cac dan toc gianh tu do, doc lap.

Cuoi nam 1917, Nguoi tu Anh tro lai Phap tiep tuc hoat dong trong phong trao Viet kieu va phong trao cong nhan Phap. Nam 1919, lay ten la Nguyen Ai Quoc, Nguoi thay mat nhung nguoi Viet Nam yeu nuoc tai Phap gui toi Hoi nghi Vesailles ban yeu sach doi quyen tu do cho nhan dan Viet Nam va cung la quyen tu do cho nhan dan cac nuoc thuoc dia.

Duoi anh huong cua Cach mang Thang Muoi Nga nam 1917 va Luan cuong cua Lenin ve van de dan toc va thuoc dia, thang 12 nam 1920, Nguyen Ai Quoc tham du dai hoi lan thu XVIII Dang Xa hoi Phap va Nguoi bo phieu tan thanh Dang gia nhap Quoc te III, Quoc te Cong san va tro thanh mot trong nhung nguoi sang lap Dang Cong san Phap. Tu mot nguoi yeu nuoc tro thanh nguoi cong san, Nguoi khang dinh con duong cach mang giai phong dan toc trong thoi dai moi la con duong cua chu nghia Mac-Lenin va Cach mang Thang Muoi Nga vi dai.

Nang 1921, cung voi mot so nguoi yeu nuoc cua cac thuoc dia Phap, Nguyen Ai Quoc sang lap Hoi Lien hiep thuoc dia. Thang 4 nam 1922, Hoi ra bao “Nguoi cung kho “ (Le Paria) nham doan ket, to chuc va huong dan phong trao dau tranh giai phong dan toc o cac thuoc dia. Nhieu bai bao cua Nguoi da duoc dua vao tac pham Ban an che do thuc dan Phap, xuat ban nam l925.

Day la mot cong trinh nghien cuu ve ban chat cua chu nghia thuc dan, thuc tinh va co vu nhan dan cac nuoc thuoc dia dung len tu giai phong. Thang 6 nam 1923, Nguyen Ai Quoc tu Phap sang Lien Xo, Nguoi lam viec trong Quoc te Cong san. Thang 10 nam l923, tai Hoi nghi Quoc te nong dan lan thu nhat Nguyen Ai Quoc duoc bau vao Hoi dong Quoc te Nong dan. Nguoi la dai bieu duy nhat cua nong dan thuoc dia duoc cu vao Doan Chu tich cua Hoi dong. Nguoi tham du Dai hoi Quoc te Cong san lan thu V, Dai hoi Quoc te Cong san Thanh nien lan thu IV, Dai hoi Quoc te Cong hoi do. Nguoil kien tri bao ve va phat trien sang tao tu tuong cua V.I.Lenin ve van de dan toc va thuoc dia, huong su quan tam cua Quoc te Cong san toi phong trao giai phong dan toc .Nguyen Ai Quoc la Uy vien thuong truc Bo phuong Dong, truc tiep phu trach Cuc phuong Nam cua Quoc te Cong san

Thang 11 nam 1924, Nguyen Ai Quoc ve Quang Chau (Trung Quoc) chon mot so thanh nien Viet Nam yeu nuoc dang song o Quang Chau, truc tiep mo lop huan luyen dao tao can bo Viet Nam Cac bai giang cua Nguoi duoc tap hop in thanh cuon sach “Duog Kach menh" - mot van kien ly luan quan trong dat co so tu tuong cho duong loi cach mang Viet Nam. Nam 1925, Nguoi thanh lap Hoi Viet Nam Cach mang Thanh nien ra bao “Thanh nien”, to bao cach mang dau tien cua Viet Nam nham truyen ba chu nghia Mac-Lenin ve Viet Nam, chuan bi thanh lap Dang Cong san Viet Nam.

Thang 5 nam 1927, Nguyen Ai Quoc roi Quang Chau di Matxcova (Lien Xo) ,sau do di Berlin (Duc), di Bruxell (Bi) tham du phien hop mo rong cua Dai hoi dong Lien doan chong chien tranh de quoc, sau do di Y va tu day ve Chau A.

Tu thang 7 nam 1928 den thang 11 nam 1929, Nguoi hoat dong trong phong trao van Dang Viet kieu yeu nuoc o Thai Lan, tiep tuc chuan bi cho su ra doi cua Dang Cong san Viet Nam.

Mua xuan nam 1930, Nguoi chu tri Hoi nghi thanh lap Dang hop tai Cuu Long gan Huong Cang, thong qua Chinh cuong van tat, Sach luoc van tat, Dieu le van tat cua Dang Cong san Viet Nam (Hoi nghi cua Dang thang 10 nam 1930 doi ten thanh Dang Cong san Dong Duong), doi tien phong cua giai cap cong nhan va toan the dan toc Viet Nam lanh dao nhan dan Viet Nam tien hanh cach mang giai phong dan toc. Ngay sau khi ra doi, Dang Cong san Viet Nam da lanh dao cao trao cach mang 1930-1931, dinh cao la Xo Viet Nghe Tinh, cuoc tong dien tap dau tien cua Cach mang Thang Tam nam 1945.

Thang 6 nam 1931, Nguyen Ai Quoc bi chinh quyen Anh bat giam tai Hong Kong. Day la mot thoi ky song gio trong cuoc doi hoat Dang cach mang cua Nguyen Ai Quoc. Mua xuan nam 1933, Nguoi duoc tra tu do.

Tu nam 1934 den 1938, Nguoi nghien cuu tai Vien Nghien cuu cac van de dan toc thuoc dia tai Matxcova. Kien tri con duong da xac dinh cho cach mang Viet Nam, Nguoi tiep tuc theo doi chi dao phong trao cach mang trong nuoc.

Thang 10 nam 1938, Nguoi roi Lien Xo ve Trung Quoc bat lien lac voi to chuc Dang chuan bi ve nuoc.

Ngay 28 thang 1 nam 1941, Nguoi ve nuoc sau hon 30 nam xa To quoc. Bao nhieu nam thuong nho doi cho khi qua bien gioi, Nguoi vo cung xuc dong.

Thang 5 nam 1941, Nguoi trieu tap Hoi nghi lan thu Tam Ban chap hanh Trung uong Dang. quyet dinh duong loi cuu nuoc trong thoi ky moi, thanh lap Viet Nam doc lap dong minh (Viet Minh). To chuc luc luong vu trang giai phong, xay dung can cu dia cach mang.

Thang 8 nam 1942, lay ten la Ho Chi Minh, Nguoi dai dien cho Mat tran Viet Minh va Phan hoi Viet Nam, thuoc Hiep hoi quoc te chong xam luoc sang Trung Quoc tim su lien minh quoc te, cung phoi hop hanh dong chong phat xit tren chien truong Thai Binh Duong. Nguoi bi chinh quyen dia phuong cua Tuong Gioi Thach bat giam trong cac nha lao cua tinh Quang Tay. Trong thoi gian 13 thang bi tu, Nguoi da viet tap tho “Nguc trung nhat ky" (Nhat ky trong tu) voi 133 bai tho chu Han. Thang 9 nam 1943, Nguoi duoc tra tu do.

Thang 9 nam 1944. Nguoi tro ve can cu Cao Bang. Thang 12 nam 1944, Nguoi chi thi thanh lap doi Viet Nam tuyen truyen giai phong quan tien than cua Quan doi nhan dan Viet Nam.

Cuoc chien tranh the gioi thu II buoc vao giai doan cuoi voi nhung thang loi cua Lien Xo va cac nuoc dong minh. Thang 5 nam 1945, Ho Chi Minh roi Cao Bang ve Tan Trao (Tuyen Quang). Tai day theo de nghi cua Nguoi, Hoi Nghi toan quoc cua Dang va Dai hoi Quoc dan Da hop quyetdinh tongkhoi nghia. Dai hoi Quoc dan da bau ra Uy ban giai phong dan toc Viet Nam (tuc Chinh phu lam thoi) do Ho Chi Minh lam Chu tich.

Thang 8 nam 1945, Nguoi lanh dao nhan dan khoi nghia gianh chinh quyen trong ca nuoc Ngay 2 thang 9 nam J 945, tai Quang truong Ba Dinh lich su, Nguoi doc “Tuyen ngon doc lap”, tuyen bo thanh lap nuoc Viet Nam Dan chu Cong hoa. Nguoi tro thanh vi Chu tich dau tien cua nuoc Viet Nam doc lap.

Ngay sau do, thuc dan Phap gay chien tranh, am muu xam chiem Viet Nam mot lan nua. Truoc nan ngoai xam Chu tich Ho Chi Minh keu goi ca nuoc dung len bao ve doc lap tu do cua To quoc voi tinh than: “Chung ta tha hy sinh tat ca, chu nhat dinh khong chiu mat nuoc, nhat dinh khong chiu lam no le”. Nguoi da khoi xuong phong trao thi dua yeu nuoc cung Trung uong Dang lanh dao nhan dan Viet Nam tien hanh cuoc khang chien toan dan, toan dien, truong ky, dua vao suc minh la chinh, tung buoc gianh thang loi.

Dai hoi lan thu II cua Dang (1951), Nguoi duoc bau lam Chu tich Dang Lao dong Viet Nam. Duoi su lanh dao cua Trung uong Dang va Chu tich Ho Chi Minh, cuoc khang chien than thanh cua nhan dan Viet Nam chong thuc dan Phap xam luoc da gianh thang loi to lon, ket huc ve vang bang chien thang lich su Dien Bien Phu (1954), giai phong hoan toan mien Bac.

Tu nam 1954, Nguoi cung Trung uong Dang Lao dong Viet Nam lanh dao nhan dan xay dung chu nghia xa hoi o Mien Bac va dau tranh giai phong mien Nam, thong nhat To quoc.

Dai hoi Dang Lao dong Viet Nam lan thu III, hop vao thang 9 nam 1960, Nguoi khang dinh: “Dai hoi lan nay la Dai hoi xay dung chu nghia xa hoi o mien Bac va dau tranh hoa binh, thong nhat nuoc nha”. Tai Dai hoi, Nguoi duoc bau lai lam Chu tich Ban chap hanh Trung uong Dang.

Nam 1964, de quoc My mo cuoc chien tranh pha hoai bang khong quan danh pha mien Bac Viet Nam. Nguoi dong vien toan the nhan dan Viet Nam vuot qua kho khan gian kho, quyet tam danh thang giac My xam luoc. Nguoi noi: “Chien tranh co the keo dai 5 nam, 10 nam, 20 nam hoac lau hon nua. Ha Noi, Hai Phong va mot so thanh pho, xi nghiep co the bi tan pha. Song nhan dan Viet Nam quyet khong so! Khong co gi quy hon doc lap tu do! Den ngay thang loi nhan dan ta se xay dung lai dat nuoc ta dang hoang hon, to dep hon”.

Tu nam 1965 den nam 1969, cung voi Trung uong Dang, Nguoi tiep tuc lanh dao nhan dan Viet Nam thuc hien su nghiep cach mang trong dieu kien ca nuoc co chien tranh, xay dung va bao ve mien Bac, dau tranh giai phong mien Nam, thuc hien thong nhat dat nuoc.

Ngay 2/9/1969, Nguoi tu tran, huong tho 79 tuoi.

Truoc khi qua doi, Chu tich Ho Chi Minh de lai cho nhan dan Viet Nam ban Di chuc lich su. Nguoi viet: “Dieu mong muon cuoi cung cua toi la: Toan Dang, toan dan ta doan ket phan dau, xay dung mot nuoc Viet Nam hoa binh, thong nhat, doc lap, dan chu va giau manh, va gop phan xung dang vao su nghiep cach mang the gioi”.

Thuc hien Di chuc cua Nguoi, toan dan Viet Nam da doan ket mot long danh thang cuoc chien tranh pha hoai bang may bay B52 cua de quoc My, buoc Chinh phu My phai ky Hiep dinh Pari ngay 27 thang 1 nam 1973, cham dut chien tranh xam luoc, rut het quan doi My va chu hau ra khoi mien Nam Viet Nam.

Mua xuan nam 1975, voi chien dich Ho Chi Minh lich su, nhan dan Viet Nam da hoan thanh su nghiep giai phong mien Nam, thong nhat To quoc, thuc hien duoc mong uoc thieng lieng cua Chu tich Ho Chi Minh.

Chu tich Ho Chi Minh la lanh tu vi dai cua dan toc Viet Nam. Nguoi da van dung va phat trien sang tao chu nghia Mac-Lenin vao dieu kien cu the cua nuoc ta, sang lap Dang Mac- Lenin o Viet Nam, sang lap Mat tran dan toc thong nhat Viet Nam, sang lap Luc luong vu trang nhan dan Viet Nam va sang lap nuoc Viet Nam Dan chu Cong hoa (nay la Cong hoa xa hoi chu nghia Viet Nam). Nguoi luon luon ket hop chat che cach mang Viet Nam voi cuoc dau tranh chung cua nhan dan the gioi vi hoa binh, doc lap dan toc, dan chu va tien bo xa hoi. Nguoi la tam guong dao duc cao ca, can, kiem,liem, chinh, chi cong. vo tu, vo cung khiem ton, gian di

Nam 1987, To chuc Giao duc, Khoa hoc va Van hoa Lien hop quoc (UNESCO) da cong nhan Ho Chi Minh la anh hung giai phong dan toc, nha van hoa kiet xuat

Ngay nay, trong su nghiep doi moi cua dat nuoc, hoi nhap voi the gloi, tu tuong Ho Chi Minh la tai san tinh than to lon cua Dang va dan toc ta, mai mai soi duong cho cuoc dau tranh cua nhan dan Viet Nam vi muc tieu dan giau, nuoc manh, xa hoi cong bang, dan chu, van minh.

Bao Tang Ho Chi Minh – Thang 5 nam 2004

Viet Bao

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