Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong

Tags: Tran Nhan Tong, Luong Vo De, Truc Lam Yen Tu, Ky Suu, Tran Thai Tong, Thien phai Truc Lam, Phat giao Viet Nam, nha van hoa, linh vuc, Doi Tran, ton giao, chinh tri, the ky, tuong niem, hoang


* Anh hung dan toc, nha van hoa lon, ong to Thien tong VN

Hom nay 16.12.2009 (nham 1.11 Ky Suu), dai le tuong niem 701 nam ngay Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong nhap Niet ban (1308 - 2009) se cu hanh trong the tai nhieu noi trong nuoc. Vi sao Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong duoc ca nguoi trong dao lan ngoai doi ton vinh?

tuong.jpg 

Tuong Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong bang da - Anh: tu lieu 

Trong vong may thap nien qua, Phat giao doi Tran voi thien phai Truc Lam Yen Tu do ngai lam so to (vi to dau tien), lai co van hoi moi de khoi phuc manh me. Bang chung la rat nhieu an pham lien quan den thien phai, cung nhu mot so thien vien mang ten Truc Lam nhu Truc Lam Lam Dong, Truc Lam Yen Tu, Truc Lam Tay Thien, Truc Lam Bach Ma...  da va dang xay dung trang nghiem tu Nam chi Bac de lam dao trang thuc hanh tu hoc theo chu truong cua thien phai Viet Nam.

Cac vua Tran co pham toi sat sanh?

Dieu lam nhieu nguoi thac mac la, Phat giao doi Tran voi cac vi vua nhu Tran Thai Tong (Tran Canh) va nhat la Tran Nhan Tong (Tran Kham) da truc tiep lanh dao tuong si, quan dan thoi do danh tan quan xam luoc Nguyen - Mong, mau giac nhieu tran nhuom do nuoc song Bach Dang, xac giac troi ngon ngang trong dong, phoi day ngoai bien ai, nhu the xet ve mat giao ly cua nha Phat, thi cac vi vua ay co pham toi sat sanh hay khong?

De tra loi, hoa thuong Thich Thanh Tu - nguoi khoi xuong va chu truong khoi phuc Phat giao doi Tran hien nay - da thu so sanh hanh dong cua vua Luong Vo De ben Trung Hoa (the ky 5 - 6) voi vua Tran Thai Tong va vua Tran Nhan Tong o Viet Nam (the ky 13). Rang khi vua Luong Vo De bi quan cua Hau Canh keo den vay chat thanh Kien Khuong (kinh do nha Luong), bay gio quan than xin xuat quan chong giac nhung vua khong cho, lai ra lenh dong chat cua thanh, tung kinh cau nguyen cho giac lui. Nhung: “ket qua giac chang lui, ma ong (vua Luong Vo De) bi mat nuoc (ve sau nhin doi chet). Trai lai vua Tran Thai Tong (va Tran Nhan Tong) la nguoi ngo duoc Thien tong, khi giac Nguyen - Mong xam lang vua chi huy cam quan danh giac, giac thua rut lui ve, dat nuoc thai binh, vua moi ngoi yen tu thien. Hai thai do cua hai ong vua dong kinh mo dao Phat, ma xu su moi ben moi khac”. Roi ket luan, khi bi giac vay khon, vua Luong Vo De khong dung binh mo vong vay, ma chi ngoi trong thanh tung kinh cau cho giac lui, nhu the la vong tuong, vi “day la dem ton giao ap dat len chinh tri nen phai mac hoa. Vua Thai Tong tach bach phan minh phan nao thuoc ton giao, phan nao thuoc chinh tri, nen cuu duoc dat nuoc khoi lam nguy. Tu theo Phat giao la trau doi dao duc ren luyen tam linh la viec rieng cua moi nguoi phat tu, tuc la linh vuc cua ton giao. Giac ngoai bang xam lang To quoc, toan dan dung len chong giac, nguoi lanh dao co dong long yeu nuoc cua dan va dung ra chi huy danh giac la linh vuc chinh tri. Phan ranh linh vuc ton giao, linh vuc chinh tri la van de rat thiet yeu. Nguoi phat tu tho tam quy tri ngu gioi, neu pham gioi sat sinh la co toi, do la phan tu hanh rieng cua phat tu, thuoc linh vuc ton giao. Dat nuoc bi xam lang, toan dan dung len chong giac la trach nhiem cua moi cong dan, thuoc linh vuc chinh tri. Du trong cuoc chien co nhieu phat tu giet nhieu sinh mang ke thu, song khong the mang toi sat sanh dat vao cho nay duoc”.

Tu so sanh ay, co the rut ra truong hop Phat hoang (khi con la Hoang de Tran Nhan Tong) vi loi ich cua toan dan dong binh chong giac, la hoan toan dung. Nen Phat hoang duoc ca ngoi vi phuoc bau cuu nguoi cuu nuoc tu xua.
Truong ton qua 7 the ky
Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong
Thap Hue Quang tho Phat hoang o chua Hoa Yen, nui Yen Tu (Quang Ninh) - Anh: tu lieu

Moi day, theo tinh than thong tu cua Hoi dong tri su Trung uong Giao hoi Phat giao Viet Nam va noi dung thu moi du tuong niem 701 nam ngay Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong nhap diet da ghi ro dai le nay nham “tuong nho cong lao va su nghiep vi dai cua Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong, nguoi anh hung dan toc, nha van hoa vi dai cua non song dat nuoc ta, la nguoi da sang lap Thien phai Truc Lam Yen Tu Viet Nam - thien phai duy nhat trong lich su Viet Nam co so to la mot thien su nguoi Viet”. Theo do, co ba dieu trong cuoc doi Phat hoang duoc mai mai ton vinh:
Thu nhat, Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong la mot hoang de anh hung cua dan toc, len ngoi nam 1279, luc 21 tuoi. Duoi trieu dai cua ngai, hai hoi nghi vang doi lich su la Hoi nghi Dien Hong va Hoi nghi Binh Than da duoc mo ra vi muc dich cuu nuoc. Ngai lanh dao quan dan tuong si thoi do danh tan giac Nguyen - Mong hai lan. Lan dau vao nam 1285 khi danh bai dai binh cua nha Nguyen, ruot duoi thai tu Thoat Hoan chui vao ong dong tron ve nuoc, chem dau nguyen soai Toa Do, giet Ly Hang va tuy tuong Ly Quan tai tran... Lan thu hai vao nam 1288 o song Bach Dang, quan ta dong coc nhon phu co len tren, du thuyen giac den theo nuoc thuy trieu, roi vua tung quan danh lon, khien quan xam luoc Nguyen bi “chet duoi nhieu khong ke xiet”, thu 400 thuyen, bat song nguyen soai O Ma Nhi, Tich Le Co, tham chinh Sam Doan, Phan Tiep, nguyen soai Dien, cung cac Van ho, Thien ho dem ve lam le bao cao dai thang o Chieu lang. Vua nhan tu, sau thang giac, ra lenh dai xa thien ha, tha thue toan phan cho nhung noi bi giac dot pha. Giac rut ve, quan ta thu duoc cai hom bieu dung nhieu giay xin hang quan Nguyen cua mot so quan lai luc do. Thay vi tri toi, Phat hoang ra lenh dem hom kia dot di, khong truy toi, de lam yen long nhung ke trot tam phan trac.

Thu hai, Phat hoang la nha van hoa lon cua Viet Nam. Ngai cai tien che do thi cu, phat trien tho van chu Nom, chi dao bien soan cac bo sach quan trong, cung nhung hoat dong tri thuc khac da thuc su gop phan day manh da phat trien cua nen van hoa Dai Viet. Nhung thanh cong ay, chang han ve linh vuc van hoc, den the ky 20 van duoc cac tac gia co uy tin ghi chep. Nhu Tran Trong Kim qua Viet Nam su luoc neu ro “doi vua Nhan Tong co nhieu giac gia, tuy vay viec van hoc cung hung thinh lam. Xem bai hich cua Hung Dao vuong, tho cua ong Tran Quang Khai va cua ong Pham Ngu Lao thi biet la van chuong doi bay gio co khi luc manh me lam. Lai co quan Hinh bo thuong thu la ong Nguyen Thuyen khoi dau dung chu Nom ma lam tho phu (Van te ca sau)”. Chinh Phat hoang cung sang tac cac tac pham nhu: Thien lam thiet chuy ngu luc, Dai huong hai an thi tap, Tang gia toai su, Thach that mi ngu (do ngai Phap Loa soan lai).

Thu ba, Phat hoang la ong to Thien tong dau tien nguoi Viet Nam. Truoc ngai, mot so he phai Thien tong xuat phat tu Trung Hoa truyen sang nhu thien phai Ty-ni-da-luu-chi, thien phai Vo Ngon Thong, thien phai Thao Duong voi cac vi dung dau goc gac nguoi Trung Quoc hoac An Do. Den thoi Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong thi ngai moi lap phai thien Truc Lam Yen Tu va la phai thien dau tien - duy nhat den nay co so to la Hoang de Viet Nam. Den nay, nhung vi chu truong khoi phuc Thien phai Truc Lam Yen Tu doi Tran do xuat phat tu nhan dinh “gia tri Phat giao o An Do that sieu xuat, gia tri Phat giao Viet Nam cung phi thuong, moi du suc thuyet phuc mot ong hoang, mot ong vua di tu. O Viet Nam doi Tran ong vua di tu Phat (Tran Nhan Tong), ong trang nguyen di tu Phat (Huyen Quang), chung ta thu xet gia tri doi ay cao sieu den ngan nao. Phat phap da cao sieu, nguoi tu cung dang kinh, cho nen Phat giao rat thinh hanh trong thoi Tran. Chung toi nham khoi phuc Phat giao doi Tran cot nang cao Phat giao Viet Nam hien nay la nhu the”.
Nhung dieu neu tren ve Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong la nhung gia tri vinh cuu, cho du Phat hoang da nhap Niet ban tu hon bay the ky qua...

Son Phong Man Hung

Thuy phuoc canh tuong cau giai thoat
Bat pham ha tat mich than tien
Vien nhan ma quyen nhan ung lao
Y cuu van trang nhat thap thien.

Thi phi niem truc trieu hoa lac
Danh loi tam tuy da vu han
Hoa tan vu tinh son tich tich
Nhat thanh de dieu huu xuan tan

Tho Tran Nhan Tong

 

 

 Phong nui khoi hung

Ai troi ma mong cau giai thoat
Chang pham, nao phai kiem than tien?
Vuon nhan, ngua moi, nguoi da lao
Nhu cu van trang mot chong thien.

Phai quay niem roi hoa buoi som
Loi danh tam lanh voi mua dem
Mua tanh, hoa tro, non vang lang
Chim keu mot tieng lai xuan tan.

 

 

(Hoa thuong Thich Thanh Tu dich)

Giao Huong

Vietbao (Theo: ThanhnienOnline)


Tìm hiểu: Tran Nhan Tong, Luong Vo De, Truc Lam Yen Tu, Ky Suu, Tran Thai Tong, Thien phai Truc Lam, Phat giao Viet Nam, nha van hoa, linh vuc, Doi Tran, ton giao, chinh tri, the ky, tuong niem, hoang

Xem Bản Tiếng Việt Có Dấu: Phật hoàng Trần Nhân Tông

Ban co the doc ban tieng Viet co dau cua bai viet Phật hoàng Trần Nhân Tông bang cach nhan chuot vao duong dan tren.

Lien he ve tin Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong

Nhan xet, hay lien he ve tin Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong co the gui bang duong dan o duoi. Ban nen gui kem tieu de bai viet Phat hoang Tran Nhan Tong de lam tham khao. Bai viet nay thuoc chuyen de Nhan vat trong chuyen muc Phong su.

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