Ai bao ve quyen loi nguoi choi hui

Tags: Truong Xuan Tam, Tan Binh, Bo luat Dan su, nghia vu tra no, su de dai, lien quan den, giay xac nhan, choi hui, giai quyet, toa an, nguoi choi, tranh chap, tai san, viec, tien


Phong su dieu tra: Tham nhap “the gioi” hui

Ai bao ve quyen loi nguoi choi hui
Minh hoa: Nguyen Ngoc Thuan
Loi dung niem tin va su de dai cua nguoi choi hui, nhieu chu hui om bac ti bo tron hoac song nhon nho, thach thuc phap luat. Trong khi do nan nhan khong biet “keu” o dau? Ai giup ho?

>> Bai 1: Rut tien nhanh, de mat trang

Khong noi nao giai quyet

Nhieu ngay qua, mac du vao mua tet nhung hang tram tieu thuong cac cho Nghia Hoa, Nghia Phat, Tan Binh, Bac Hai, Pham Van Hai (TP.HCM) phai bo be viec kinh doanh, keo nhau den cong an, toa an to cao hanh vi lua dao, chiem doat tai san cua chu hui Tran Thi Thu Ha va de nghi cac co quan chuc nang giai quyet, giup do ho. Tuy nhien, nguyen vong cua ho da khong duoc noi nao dap ung.

That ra co quan cong an va toa an cung da lam het minh nhung roi vao be tac. Sau may thang dieu tra, Cong an Q.Tan Binh tra loi “ba Tran Thi Thu Ha thong qua viec to chuc choi hui dan den no tien cua nhieu nguoi” nhung “hanh vi chua du yeu to cau thanh toi pham nen khong khoi to hinh su, de nghi cac nguyen don gui don khoi kien tai toa de giai quyet theo thu tuc to tung dan su”. Sau mot thoi gian nghien cuu ho so, TAND Q.Tan Binh co van ban tra loi tu choi tiep nhan don xin giai quyet viec vo hui voi ly do “ve cac loai an lien quan den hui, ho, Chinh phu da co nghi dinh huong dan nhung hien nay TAND toi cao chua co van ban huong dan nen van chua thu ly giai quyet”. Cach giai quyet lung khung, dun day cua co quan chuc nang doi voi vu be hui tren khong phai ca biet. Thuc te hiem co vu be hui nao duoc giai quyet den noi den chon va nguoi thiet hai van la con hui.

Thuong ta Nguyen Dong Dieu, pho Phong Canh sat dieu tra toi pham ve trat tu xa hoi Cong an TP.HCM (PC14), cho biet lau nay nhung vu tranh chap ve hui thuoc tham quyen giai quyet cua cong an quan huyen hoac ben toa an. Vu nao mang tinh lua dao, so tien lon, tinh chat nghiem trong thi PC14 moi lam. Trung ta Nguyen Tan Loc, doi pho doi tham muu PC14, cho biet them: “Thuc te rat nhieu vu chu hui lua dao bang cach dung hui gia de ban (hui ma) hoac gom tien cua con hui, sau do khong chung cho hui vien hoac bo tron... Neu co dau hieu lua dao thi cong an quan huyen se tap hop tai lieu de dieu tra. Neu co can cu thi khoi to hinh su. Neu tinh chat nghiem trong, so tien lon, lien quan den nhieu quan huyen thi co quan dieu tra cap TP giai quyet”.

Ve phia toa an, ba Nguyen Thanh Nguyen Nhung - chanh an TAND Q.3 - cho rang tu nam 1996 tro ve truoc, toa an co giai quyet cac tranh chap ve hui. Neu duong su yeu cau giai quyet dan su thi toa thu ly ho so. Neu co dau hieu lua dao thi huong dan ho den co quan cong an trinh bao. Khi Bo luat dan su nam 1996 ra doi khong co qui dinh nao ve hui nen toa an ngung nhan ho so giai quyet ve hui. Bo luat dan su nam 2006 cho phep nguoi dan choi hui. Tuy nhien, hien nay TAND toi cao chua co huong dan viec giai quyet tranh chap hui nen TAND quan khong nhan ho so.

Theo y kien cua nhieu luat su, nghi dinh chi cho phep viec vay muon co tinh chat tuong tro, giup do nhau trong nguoi dan va khong cho phep viec to chuc choi hui co tinh chat vay nang lai, dat ra muc lai suat qua cao... ma phai theo lai suat qui dinh trong Bo luat dan su. Cac hanh vi loi dung de lua dao (khuech truong kha nang tai san, du do nguoi khac choi hui voi lai suat cao, to chuc nhieu day hui lon de hot hui truoc roi bo tron hoac co y tau tan tai san de tron tranh nghia vu tra no) bi dat ra ngoai vong phap luat, bi xu ly nghiem theo qui dinh phap luat ve hinh su.

Toa an phai thu ly tranh chap ve hui

Lam sao tranh bi giat hui?

Theo luat su Truong Xuan Tam, de tranh rui ro, nhung nguoi muon choi hui can luu y: theo tap quan, viec choi hui chi dua vao niem tin ca nhan giua cac hui vien ma khong co tai san bao dam cho viec giao dich nay (khong co tai san cam co, the chap). Qua thuc te tham gia tu van tranh chap hui, toi khuyen moi nguoi chi choi hui khi cac hui vien biet kha ro ve nhau, co do tin cay nhau nhat dinh, tuyet nhien khong nen coi hui la hinh thuc dau tu de nham huong lai suat cao.

Nhieu luat su cho rang thuc te co nhieu vu tranh chap ve no hui, nhung neu ben co quyen doi no yeu cau ben co nghia vu tra no lam giay xac nhan co no mot so tien nao do thi ben co quyen doi no co the dung giay xac nhan nay lam can cu de yeu cau toa an thu ly vu kien vu no vay thong thuong. Luc nay toa khong co ly do gi de tu choi vu kien. Tuy nhien, do chi la giai phap tinh the vi nhieu khi ben co nghia vu tra no khong chiu ky giay xac nhan no. Do do, TAND toi cao can nhanh chong chi dao cac toa an dia phuong phai nhan don kien ve tranh chap no hui, tranh thiet thoi cho duong su.

Luat su Truong Xuan Tam (truong van phong luat su Tuong Truong Xuan Tam) neu ro: do truoc day khong duoc phap luat cong nhan nen cac hanh vi choi hui bi coi bat hop phap dan den nguoi choi hui phai len lut, tham chi khong co van ban giay to gi the hien su thoa thuan, su giao nhan tien giua nhung nguoi choi hui nen rat de xay ra tranh chap ma khong duoc toa an giai quyet. Chinh vi vay, viec choi hui luon tiem an nguy co rui ro rat cao, nhieu khi vo hui day chuyen, thiet hai hang chuc ti dong, nhieu gia dinh khon don vi hui.

Bo luat dan su moi (co hieu luc thi hanh tu 1-1-2006) da thua nhan viec choi hui nhu mot giao dich dan su hop phap ve tai san, nam trong muc “hop dong vay tai san” (dieu 479), phap luat cung nghiem cam viec loi dung choi hui de cho vay nang lai (khoan 3, dieu 479). Moi day, nham cu the hoa tinh than Bo luat dan su, Chinh phu ban hanh nghi dinh 144/ND-CP qui dinh ve giao dich hui, ho. Nhu vay, den nay viec choi hui la hoan toan hop phap, do do khi co tranh chap ve hui thi toa an co trach nhiem phai thu ly, giai quyet theo trinh tu qui dinh tai Bo luat to tung dan su.

Luat su Truong Xuan Tam cung nhan manh: hien nay nhieu toa an vien vao ly do chua co huong dan ve thu ly thanh chap no hui de tu choi thu ly don khoi kien cua nhan dan la khong chinh dang, vo hinh trung da lam han che quyen ve tai san cua cac duong su.

Theo luat su Bui Quang Nghiem (Doan luat su TP.HCM), can phan biet cac truong hop nhu neu chu hui mo hui de thu tien hui roi bo tron, hoac thanh vien tra lai cao de linh tien hui xong bo tron... la co dau hieu cua toi pham hinh su o cac toi nhu “lua dao”, “lam dung tin nhiem chiem doat tai san”, cac thanh vien bi xam pham co the to cao den co quan cong an dieu tra de nghi khoi to vu an hinh su.

Trong truong hop neu chu hui hay thanh vien da linh hui ma khong co kha nang gop hui tiep tuc, nhung vi cac ly do khach quan ma khong co dau hieu toi pham thi coi day la tranh chap dan su thuoc tham quyen cua toa an xet xu ve dan su. Hien phap luat da dieu chinh quan he ve hui, trong tuong lai se khong con tinh trang cac co quan co tham quyen tu choi thu ly giai quyet cac vu kien tung hay to cao lien quan den ho.

HOANG KHUONG

Viet Bao

Tìm hiểu: Truong Xuan Tam, Tan Binh, Bo luat Dan su, nghia vu tra no, su de dai, lien quan den, giay xac nhan, choi hui, giai quyet, toa an, nguoi choi, tranh chap, tai san, viec, tien

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