Huong dan on tap thi tot nghiep THPT nam hoc 2005 2006

Tags: Bo GD&DT, phuong trinh tiep tuyen, phuong trinh chinh tac, kien thuc co ban, thi tot nghiep, cua ham so, khoang cach giua, he toa do, duong thang, mat phang, giua hai, bai toan, huong dan, on tap, diem


Bo GD&DT vua co cong van gui cac So GD&DT, cac truong THPT truc thuoc Bo ve viec huong dan on thi tot nghiep THPT va on tap cuoi nam lop 9 THCS nam hoc 2005 – 2006.

Kem theo cong van la tai lieu huong dan on tap thi tot nghiep cap THPT nam hoc 2005 – 2006.

Theo do, Bo GD&DT yeu cau cac So GD&DT chi dao cac truong to chuc on tap cho HS nham giup cac em nam duoc muc dich, yeu cau, noi dung cua chuong trinh tung mon hoc tren co so chuong trinh, sach giao khoa va noi dung huong dan on tap tung mon hoc ma Bo vua ban hanh.

Rieng doi voi mon Ngu van va mon Toan THPT chuong trinh khong phan ban can bam sat bo sach giao khoa chinh ly hop nhat da ban hanh nam 2000 de huong dan on tap cho HS. Ke tu so bao nay, Tien Phong xin dang tai toan bo tai lieu huong dan noi tren.

Mon Toan

(Chuong trinh khong phan ban)

Chu de I: Dao ham va khao sat ham so

Cac kien thuc co ban can nho:

1. Tap xac dinh, tap gia tri cua ham so. Dau nhi thuc bac nhat, dau tam thuc bac hai. Ham so chan, ham so le, ham so tuan hoan. Cac quy tac tinh dao ham. Dao ham cua cac ham so so cap co ban. Dao ham ben trai, ben phai cua ham so. Dao ham tren khoang, tren doan. Quan he giua su ton tai cua dao ham va tinh lien tuc cua ham so. y nghia cua dao ham cap mot. Phuong trinh tiep tuyen cua do thi ham so.

2. Diem toi han. Dieu kien de ham so dong bien, nghich bien; chieu bien thien, cac dinh ly va quy tac tim cuc dai va cuc tieu, gia tri lon nhat va gia tri nho nhat cua ham so trong mot khoang, mot doan... Tinh loi, lom va diem uon cua do thi. Tiem can. Tinh doi xung cua do thi.

3. Quy tac tinh dao ham va bang cac dao ham, dao ham bac cao va vi phan, tinh gan dung nho vi phan.

4. Cac gioi han co ban:                                             

 5. Quy tac bon buoc tim cac diem cuc tri cua ham so.

6. Quy tac tim max  f (x) va min  f (x) sau:

7. Cac cong thuc xac dinh cac he so a va b cua tiem can xien y = ax + b cua do thi ham so y = f (x). 8. So do khao sat ham so. 9. Cac bai toan ve tiep xuc va cat nhau cua  hai do thi.

Cac dang toan can luyen tap:
 1. Cac ung dung cua dao ham: xet chieu bien thien, tim cuc tri, tim gia tri lon nhat nho nhat, xet nghiem cua phuong trinh bat phuong trinh; lap phuong trinh tiep tuyen cua do thi (tiep tuyen tai mot diem, tiep tuyen di qua mot diem) biet he so goc cua tiep tuyen, dieu kien tiep xuc cua hai do thi; khong xet tiep tuyen song song voi truc tung Oy cua do thi.

2. Khao sat cac ham so: y = ax³ + bx² + cx + d  (a  a 0)        
                                     y = ax4 + bx2 + c (a a 0)

3. Cac ung dung do thi ham so, mien mat phang de giai toan bien luan nghiem phuong trinh, bat phuong trinh, tim gia tri lon nhat va nho nhat cua ham so hoac bieu thuc hai an, xet tinh dong bien, nghich bien, tim gia tri cuc tri khi ham so so cap thuong gap cho o dang co tham so m. 4. Bai toan tim giao diem hai duong, viet phuong trinh tiep tuyen.

Chu de 2: Nguyen ham tich phan va ung dung

Cac kien thuc co ban can nho:
1. Dinh nghia, tinh chat va bang cac nguyen ham.
2. Dinh nghia tich phan va cong thuc Niuton – Laibonit.
3. Cac tinh chat cua tich phan.
4. Hai phuong phap tinh tich phan: phuong phap doi bien so va phuong phap tinh tich phan tung phan.
5. Dien tich cua hinh thang cong, the tich cua vat the tron xoay.

Cac dang toan can luyen tap:
1. Tim cac nguyen ham noi chung va tim nguyen ham thoa man dieu kien cho truoc.
2. Tim tich phan.
3. Cac ung ung cua tich phan: tinh dien tich hinh phang (gioi han boi cac duong, do thi da hoc); tinh the tich hinh khoi tron xoay theo cong thuc co ban.

Chu de 3: Giai tich to hop

Cac kien thuc co ban can nho: Quy tac cong, quy tac nhan, cac khai niem va cong thuc tinh hoan vi, chinh hop, to hop, cong thuc nhi thuc Newton.

Cac dang toan can luyen tap:
1. Cac bai toan giai phuong trinh, bat phuong trinh co an so can tim lien quan cong thuc tinh so cac hoan vi, so cac chinh hop, so cac to hop.
2. Cac bai toan lien quan toi cong thuc khai trien nhi thuc Newton: chung minh dang thuc, tinh he so cua mot luy thua trong mot khai trien.

Chu de 4: Phuong phap toa do trong mat phang

Cac kien thuc can nho:
1. Toa do cua vecto, toa do cua diem trong he toa do Oxy. Bieu thuc toa do cua cac vecto cung phuong, cung huong; do dai cua vecto, vecto bang nhau. Lien he giua toa do vecto va toa do hai diem dau mut. Bieu thuc toa do cua cac phep tinh vecto, cua tich vo huong. Tinh cosin cua goc giua hai vecto, trung diem cua doan thang, trong tam cua tam giac, chia mot doan thang theo ty so cho truoc.
2. Khoang cach giua hai diem, tu mot diem toi mot duong thang, goc giua hai vecto, goc giua hai duong thang, dien tich tam giac.
3. Vecto phap tuyen, vecto chi phuong cua duong thang. Duong thang song song, vuong goc va vi tri tuong doi cua hai duong thang, chum duong thang.
4. Cac dang phuong trinh cua duong thang (dang tong quat, dang tham so, dang chinh tac), cua duong tron. Phuong trinh chinh tac cua 3 duong conic: clip, hypebol, parabol).

Cac dang toan can luyen tap:
1. Viet cac dang phuong trinh cua duong thang khi biet di qua hai diem, di qua mot diem va song song hoac vuong goc voi mot duong thang, di qua mot diem va tiep xuc voi mot duong tron hoac mot conic.
2. Viet phuong trinh duong thang chua canh, duong cao, trung tuyen, trung truc, phan giac cua mot tam giac khi biet toa do ba dinh hoac phuong trinh ba canh.
3. Cac bai toan tinh toan: khoang cach (tim duong cao, chu vi, dien tich, tam va ban kinh vong tron ngoai tiep cua tam giac), goc (goc giua hai vecto, goc giua hai duong thang).
4. Cac bai toan ve duong tron: viet phuong trinh duong tron biet tam va ban kinh, biet hai diem dau duong kinh, tim phuong tich va truc dang phuong, viet phuong trinh tiep tuyen chung cua hai duong tron.
5. Cac bai toan ve duong conic: viet cac phuong trinh chinh tac cua elip, hypebol, parabol khi biet cac dieu kien xac dinh, tim cac yeu to (tam sai, tieu diem, duong chuan...) cua mot duong conic khi biet phuong trinh cua no, viet phuong trinh tiep tuyen cua mot duong conic.
6. Cac bai toan ve xac dinh tap hop diem (qui tich).

Chu de 5: Phuong phap tao do trong khong gian.

Cac kien thuc can nho:
1. Toa do cua vecto, toa do cua diem trong he toa do Oxy. Bieu thuc toa do cua cac vecto cung phuong, cung huong; do dai cua vecto, vecto bang nhau. Bieu thuc toa do cua cac phep tinh vecto, cua tich vo huong, tinh cosin cua goc giua hai vecto, trung diem cua doan thang, trong tam cua tam giac, trong tam tu dien, chia mot doan thang theo ty so cho truoc. Dieu kien de hai vecto cung phuong, hai vecto vuong goc, de 3 vecto dong phang. Toa do diem doi xung qua mot diem (duong thang, mat phang) voi diem cho truoc. Vecto phap tuyen, vecto chi phuong cua duong thang (mat phang).

2. Khoang cach giua hai diem, tu mot diem toi mot mat phang, toi mot duong thang; khoang cach giua hai duong thang cheo nhau. Goc giua hai vecto, goc giua hai duong thang, goc giua hai mat phang, goc giua duong thang va mat phang. Dien tich tam giac, the tich hinh hop va hinh tu dien.

3. Cac dang phuong trinh cua mat phang, cua duong thang, cua mat cau.

Cac dang toan can luyen tap:

1. Dung vecto (cung phuong, tich vo huong, bieu dien vecto qua hai hoac ba vecto khac) de chung minh mot he thuc vecto, chung minh tinh thang hang, song song, vuong goc, dong phang.

2. Cac bai toan tinh toan: khoang cach (khoang cach giua 2 diem, tu mot diem toi mot mat phang, toi mot duong thang; khoang cach giua hai duong thang cheo nhau); goc (goc giua hai vecto, goc giua hai duong thang, goc giua hai mat phang, goc giua duong thang va mat phang), tinh dien tich tam giac, the tich hinh hop va hinh tu dien.

3. Cac bai toan ve mat phang: tim vecto phap tuyen, viet phuong trinh tong quat, phuong trinh theo doan chan, phuong trinh mat phang di qua ba diem khong thang hang, xac dinh vi tri tuong doi cua hai mat phang, chum mat phang, mat phang song song, vuong goc, cac vi tri dac biet cua mat phang.

4. Cac bai toan ve duong thang: tim vecto chi phuong, viet phuong trinh tong quat, phuong trinh tham so, phuong trinh chinh tac; xac dinh cac he thuc vecto, he thuc toa do bieu dien vi tri tuong doi cua duong thang va mat phang, vi tri tuong doi giua hai duong thang (dong phang, cat nhau, song song, trung nhau, cheo nhau), vi tri tuong doi giua duong thang va mat phang (cat nhau, song song, nam tren, vuong goc), chum duong thang.

5. Cac bai toan ve mat cau: viet phuong trinh mat cau biet tam va ban kinh, mat phang tiep dien, viet phuong trinh mat phang tiep dien, tim tam va ban kinh khi biet phuong trinh mat cau. Xac dinh vi tri tuong doi giua mat cau va mat phang (cat nhau, tiep xuc, khong cat nhau).

6. Cac bai toan co ap dung phuong phap toa do de giai (ke tu khau thiet lap he toa do vuong goc, xac dinh toa do cac yeu to cho trong bai toan nhu diem, vecto, duong thang, goc, khoang cach... trong he toa do do; toi khau ung dung cac he thuc, cac phuong trinh ve duong thang, mat phang, mat cau, goc, khoang cach, dien tich, the tich.

Nguon: Bo GD&DT

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Tìm hiểu: Bo GD&DT, phuong trinh tiep tuyen, phuong trinh chinh tac, kien thuc co ban, thi tot nghiep, cua ham so, khoang cach giua, he toa do, duong thang, mat phang, giua hai, bai toan, huong dan, on tap, diem

Xem Bản Tiếng Việt Có Dấu: Hướng dẫn ôn tập thi tốt nghiệp THPT năm học 2005 - 2006

Ban co the doc ban tieng Viet co dau cua bai viet Hướng dẫn ôn tập thi tốt nghiệp THPT năm học 2005 - 2006 bang cach nhan chuot vao duong dan tren.

Lien he ve tin Huong dan on tap thi tot nghiep THPT nam hoc 2005 2006

Nhan xet, hay lien he ve tin Huong dan on tap thi tot nghiep THPT nam hoc 2005 2006 co the gui bang duong dan o duoi. Ban nen gui kem tieu de bai viet Huong dan on tap thi tot nghiep THPT nam hoc 2005 2006 de lam tham khao. Bai viet nay thuoc chuyen de Tin giao duc trong chuyen muc Giao duc.

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