Bao mat mang WiFi

Tags: Mat khau truy cap, an toan du lieu, Dia chi IP, truy cap mang, thiet bi, bao mat, cua ban, thiet lap, ma hoa, co the, Wi-Fi, MAC, giup, dung, thong


Dung “hang rao” bao mat cho mang Wi-Fi khong nhung giup han che nguoi la chiem dung bang thong Internet ma con giup dam bao an toan du lieu cua ban.

Truoc tien, ban can dang nhap vao bo dinh tuyen khong day (router) hay thiet bi truy cap khong day (Access Point - AP) - goi tat la thiet bi Wi-Fi. Voi Router, ban co the nhan IP cap phat tu thiet bi, nhung voi AP, thong thuong ban can thiet lap dia chi IP tren may tinh cung lop dia chi IP cua AP (xem tai lieu di kem AP de biet dia chi IP mac dinh). Sau khi biet dia chi IP, tai khoan truy cap thiet bi (username, password), ban hay dang nhap vao thiet bi Wi-Fi.

Thay doi mat khau dang nhap

Buoc dau tien, ban can thay doi ngay tai khoan dang nhap mac dinh, thuong la admin. Vi neu nguoi khac biet tai khoan dang nhap, ho co the dang nhap vao thiet bi Wi-Fi va tuy chinh cac thong so ma ban da thiet lap. Chu y nen dat mat khau dai va phuc tap gom chu hoa, thuong, so, ky tu dac biet. Neu thiet bi Wi-Fi cua ban ho tro mang Wi-Fi rieng biet danh cho khach (guest), ban cung nen dat mat khau truy cap Wi-Fi cho mang Wi-Fi khach nay, de khi khach truy cap, thiet bi Wi-Fi se yeu cau ho nhap mat khau truy cap.

Bao mat mang WiFi
Hinh 1: Ma hoa WPA2.

An ten mang (SSID)

Moi mang Wi-Fi deu co mot ten mang (SSID) khac biet nhau, mot so thiet bi Wi-Fi ho tro cung luc den 4 SSID khac nhau. Ban nen an SSID nham tranh nguoi la do tim va chu y den mang Wi-Fi cua ban. Day la phuong cach bao mat mang Wi-Fi o muc co ban nhat.

Bat che do ma hoa WPA2

Neu thiet bi Wi-Fi va cac thiet bi truy cap Wi-Fi cua ban (may tinh xach tay, may tinh bang, dien thoai thong minh,…) deu ho tro ma hoa WPA2, thi ban nen bat che do ma hoa nay len (WPA2 Personal). WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2) la che do ma hoa Wi-Fi manh nhat hien nay. Neu ban su dung Wi-Fi trong doanh nghiep, ban nen chon che do WPA2 Enterprise, ket hop xac thuc truy cap voi may chu Radius.

Bat co che loc theo dia chi MAC

Moi thiet bi co the truy cap mang deu co dia chi MAC (Media Access Control) khac nhau. Mac du hien nay co nhieu cong cu cho phep ban thay doi dia chi MAC, tuy nhien neu ban ket hop nhieu phuong cach bao mat Wi-Fi thi nguoi la cung kho long truy cap trai phep vao mang Wi-Fi cua ban. Co che loc MAC tren thiet bi Wi-Fi giup ban de dang kiem soat cac thiet bi truy cap mang Wi-Fi. Ban co the gan cac dia chi MAC vao danh sach duoc phep truy cap Wi-Fi hoac khong duoc phep truy cap mang Wi-Fi.

De biet dia chi MAC, tren may tinh xach tay chay Windows 7, nhan vao trinh don Start, tai o Search, nhap chucmd va nhan Enter. Sau do tren cua so lenh (mau den) ban nhap dong lenh ipconfig /all, nhan Enter, ban se thay dia chi MAC cua may tinh. Neu ban dung Mac OS X, mo System Preferences, nhan Network, chon Wi-Fi trong danh sach ben trai, nhan Advanced, hay chu y dong chu tai o “Airport ID” or “Wi-Fi ID”. Cach don gian hon, dau tien ban thiet lap thiet bi Wi-Fi khong ma hoa (Open), sau do cho cac thiet bi truy cap vao mang Wi-Fi, luc nay tren thiet bi Wi-Fi ban se nhin thay danh sach cac thiet bi truy cap bao gom dia chi IP, dia chi MAC.

Bao mat mang WiFi
Hinh 2: Loc truy cap theo dia chi MAC.

Gioi han viec cap phat dia chi IP dong

Viec cap phat dia chi IP dong DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) tu thiet bi Wi-Fi giup viec ket noi mang Wi-Fi de dang hon. Tuy nhien, de tang cuong kha nang bao mat mang Wi-Fi, ban chi nen thiet lap sao cho luong dia chi IP cap phat tu dong vua du so thiet bi duoc phep truy cap mang Wi-Fi. 

Che giau mang voi ben ngoai

Cuoi cung, ban nen thiet lap chuc nang chan cac yeu cau tu ben ngoai (Block WAN Requests) nham che giau mang cua ban truoc nguoi dung Internet khac, ben ngoai mang cua ban. Vi neu khong thiet lap chuc nang nay, nguoi dung tu ben ngoai mang co the su dung cac cong cu do tim dia chi IP cong cong (Public IP) tren thiet bi Wi-Fi cua ban, tu do ho co the tien hanh cac cuoc tan cong xam nhap.

Khi ban da ap dung cac phuong thuc bao mat mang Wi-Fi nhu huong dan tren, ban van khong nen chu quan, lo la trong viec phong ngua. Khoang 2 tuan/lan ban nen truy cap vao thiet bi Wi-Fi, kiem tra xem co cac bat thuong trong cac thiet lap Wi-Fi nao khong. Moi 6 thang/lan, ban nen thay doi mat khau truy cap Wi-Fi. Ngoai ra, hay su dung them cac cong cu, chang han NetStumbler (www.netstumbler.com), de kiem tra mang Wi-Fi.

Viet Bao (Theo pcworld)

Tìm hiểu: Mat khau truy cap, an toan du lieu, Dia chi IP, truy cap mang, thiet bi, bao mat, cua ban, thiet lap, ma hoa, co the, Wi-Fi, MAC, giup, dung, thong

Xem Bản Tiếng Việt Có Dấu: Bảo mật mạng Wi-Fi

Ban co the doc ban tieng Viet co dau cua bai viet Bảo mật mạng Wi-Fi bang cach nhan chuot vao duong dan tren.

Lien he ve tin Bao mat mang WiFi

Nhan xet, hay lien he ve tin Bao mat mang WiFi co the gui bang duong dan o duoi. Ban nen gui kem tieu de bai viet Bao mat mang WiFi de lam tham khao. Bai viet nay thuoc chuyen de Kinh nghiem trong chuyen muc Cong nghe.

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