Ba luc can tien trinh tien bo cua phu nu

Tags: Da Nang, Quang Tri, tham gia chinh quyen, ngan hang the gioi, ke hoach dau tu, su tien bo, bat binh dang, bo ke hoach, giay chung nhan, phu nu, ty le, mu chu, can bo, tien trinh, dat

Loai bo hoan toan bat binh dang gioi; chong nguy co tai mu chu; tang ty le phu nu tham gia chinh quyen cac cap... de phu nu ngay cang tien dan den muc tieu binh dang, tien bo la mong muon chung cua dong dao dai bieu tham du Hoi nghi danh gia giua ky tinh hinh thuc hien ke hoach hanh dong (KHHD) vi su tien bo cua phu nu Viet Nam den nam 2005, do Uy ban Quoc gia Vi su tien bo phu nu to chuc sang nay, 9/6, tai Ha Noi.

Van con tu tuong "khinh" nu "trong" nam!

Ba luc can tien trinh "tien bo" cua phu nu...
Nhieu phu nu khong co dieu kien co viec lam on dinh.

Bao cao ve nhung phat hien tu danh gia ngheo doi co su tham gia cua nguoi dan (PPA) nam 2003 duoc tien hanh dong bo tu 12 tinh thuoc 8 vung trong ca nuoc, dai dien cua Ngan hang The gioi, TS Pham Ngoc Hoa cho biet: van con su bat binh dang ve lao dong giua nu gioi va nam gioi. Co the thay ro thuc trang nay qua muc tien cong cac chu lao dong tra cho cac nu cong nhan it hon 1/3 so voi nam gioi, tuy cung mot cong viec nhu nhau. Ngoai su thiet thoi tren, nu cong nhan o thanh pho con phai doi mat voi nguy co rui ro cao khi tim viec do thieu cac dich vu gioi thieu viec lam co chat luong va dang tin cay; dieu kien song thieu thon, thoi gian lam viec qua tai, khong co co hoi giao tiep, khong duoc ky hop dong lao dong, khong co bao hiem xa hoi, khong duoc phap luat bao ve hoac bao ve khong day du, dac biet la doi voi lao dong nu di cu.

Ngoai ra, so voi nam gioi, phu nu o nong thon cung it co dieu kien tham gia tap huan, du hop va nam bat thong tin noi chung, khuyen nong noi rieng do tap quan va ganh nang cong viec. Phu nu cung rat kho khan khi tiep can von vay tu cac ngan hang chinh sach, ngan hang xa hoi do nhung tro ngai ve thoi gian, su it hieu biet ve thu tuc hanh chinh va thieu kinh nghiem giao tiep voi co quan Nha nuoc.

Theo ket qua dieu tra muc song ho gia dinh nam 2002 thi co 25% nu chu ho ngheo duoc vay von, chu yeu vay tu cac Quy tin dung va nguon von cua cac to chuc xa hoi, trong khi ty le nay o nam la 35,4%. Trong khi do, bao cao cua dai dien Bo Ke hoach Dau tu dua tren so lieu thong ke cua 43 tinh, thanh trong ca nuoc cho thay, trong nam 2002, ca nuoc co 2,61 trieu phu nu duoc tiep can vay von.

Cung voi thiet thoi ve thu nhap lao dong, tiep can von vay, phu nu cung it duoc kiem soat dat dai von la tai san chung cua hai vo chong. Ket qua dieu tra muc song ho gia dinh cua Tong cuc Thong ke nam 2002 cho thay, phu nu dung ten chiem ty le thap trong so cac giay chung nhan quyen su dung dat da cap. Dac biet, voi nhom phu nu ngheo, ty le dung ten trong giay chung nhan quyen su dung dat chi khoang 5 - 7% so voi tong so cac giay chung nhan da cap doi voi loai dat. Dieu nay gay bat loi cho phu nu trong viec the chap vay von lam an hay bi thiet hai quyen loi trong truong hop ly hon, chia tai san.

Nguy co mu chu va "tai mu" con cao

Theo Thu truong Bo Ke hoach Dau tu Phan Quang Trung, gan 3 nam qua, ty le lao dong nu duoc dao tao tang 30%, vuot chi tieu KHHD; den het nam 2003, co 19 tinh, thanh pho dat tieu chuan pho cap giao duc THCS; binh dang gioi hau nhu da dat duoc trong giao duc pho thong... Trong khi do, so lieu thong ke ma Ngan hang The gioi dua ra lai cho thay mot thuc trang dang lo ngai co the can tro viec thuc hien cac quyen binh dang trong linh vuc giao duc, dien hinh la ty le mu chu va tai mu voi nu gioi trong do tuoi 15 - 40 con cao; cong tac xoa mu con gap nhieu kho khan, va dac biet, van con toi 20% can bo Hoi LHPN chua xoa het mu chu.

Theo do, mot bo phan dang ke nguoi lon 35 tuoi tro len, dac biet la phu nu, mu chu con kha cao, co vung nhu Ben Tre, Dong Thap, ty le phu nu mu chu chiem toi 24%; O Ha Giang, Quang Tri, ty le nay tham chi len toi hon 50%. Trong so do, phu nu dan toc thieu so la nhom co ty le mu chu cao hon so voi ty le trung binh cua dia phuong, chang han, o Ben Tre va Dong Thap, mot so phu nu sau lop xoa mu chi biet doc nhung khong biet viet; chi viet duoc ten minh de ky khi can thiet hoac danh van duoc nhung khong hieu nghia; nguy co tai mu pho bien do nguoi dan vung cao it su dung tieng pho thong trong cuoc song hang ngay cong voi viec sach bao hiem, khong co gi de doc hoac co doc nhung khong hieu.

Nguyen nhan quan trong khac can tro tien trinh thuc hien cac quyen binh dang cua phu nu trong linh vuc giao duc la viec xoa mu chu cho phu nu dang gap nhieu kho khan do cac diem khong con lop xoa mu sau khi duoc cong nhan la da "het mu". Them vao do, cong tac xoa mu cung chua thuc su chu y den doi tuong nu, chua tao dieu kien de phu nu duoc den lop. O Ha Giang, thuong phu nu chi duoc di xoa mu khi nguoi chong da ... "xoa" xong.

Dac biet, theo TS Pham Ngoc Hoa, den nay van con toi 20% can bo Hoi LHPN chua het mu chu ma mot trong nhung ly do chu yeu la "hoc o tai nong thon thi khong may ket qua ma ra huyen hoc thi cac duc ong chong khong cho di".

Thuc trang tren gop phan ly giai vi sao van con ton tai khoang cach lon giua nam va nu ve trinh do hoc van.

Ty le nu dai bieu QH khoa XI chua dat "chi tieu"

Tuy chua co so lieu chung song qua bao cao cua 43 tinh, thanh, trong gan 3 nam qua, co khoang 35% don vi thuc hien tot chi tieu ve phu nu tham gia cac cap uy Dang (trong do dan dau la TP. Ho Chi Minh); 42,2% don vi thuc hien dat duoi 75% chi tieu dat ra nhu Gia Lai, TP. Da Nang...

Cung theo thong ke, ty le nu dai bieu QH khoa XI la 27,3%, mac du co tang so voi khoa X nhung van chua dat ket hoach de ra. So lieu tong hop so bo cua Uy ban Quoc gia Vi su tien bo phu nu ve ty le nu tham gia dai bieu HDND cac cap nhiem ky 2004 - 2009 cho thay: o cap tinh, thanh pho la 23,8% (trong khi KHHD de ra 28%); cap quan, huyen la 23,22% (KHHD de ra 23%) va cap xa, phuong la 20,3% (KHHD de ra 18%).

Con so tren cho thay, ket qua bau cu dai bieu HDND cap tinh trong pham vi ca nuoc o gioi nu khong dat chi tieu KHHD de ra, trong khi o cap quan, huyen va phuong, xa lai vuot chi tieu. Trong do, tinh dat ty le cao nhat ca ba cap la Tuyen Quang voi 38,59% cap tinh, 34,62% cap huyen va 26,82% cap phuong, xa; con tinh dat ty le thap nhat ca ba cap la Vinh Long voi 12% cap tinh, 14,9% cap huyen va 14,5% cap xa, phuong.

Mot su trung hop ngau nhien bat ngo la ba thanh pho lon gom Ho Chi Minh, Da Nang, Hai Phong deu khong dat chi tieu dai bieu trung cu HDND cap tinh. Cu the, TP.HCM chi dat 21,1%; Da Nang 22,0% va Hai Phong chi co 10,77%. Tong cong toan quoc co 1 nu Chu tich (CT) HDND, 17 PCT HDND, 3 CT UBND va 32 PCT UBND.

Thu truong Bo Ke hoach Dau tu Phan Quang Trung cho rang: nguyen nhan sau xa dan toi thuc trang tren la do cong tac quy hoach, dao tao can bo thoi gian qua lam chua tot, chua di vao nen nep; nhieu don vi khong co nguon can bo ke can thay the, cong them nhan thuc cua cap uy, chinh quyen mot so don vi (ca Trung uong va dia phuong) chua day du ve vai tro, vi tri cua doi ngu can bo cong chuc nu chua day du, chua duoc quan tam dung muc nen da han che viec dua can bo nu vao cac vi tri lanh dao cua cac cap, nganh.

Thuc trang nay con the hien ro qua khao sat cua Ngan hang the gioi ve viec phu nu tham gia vao cong viec dia phuong nhieu hay it tai mot so tinh mien nui, vung sau, vung xa nhu Ha Giang, Lao Cai, Quang Tri.. Ket qua cho thay, ty le phu nu tham gia lanh dao o co so rat thap. Tai cac diem khao sat (Ha Giang), khong co xa nao co can bo nu tham gia lanh dao cap xa, thon; o Lao Cai, Quang Tri, phu nu ngheo va phu nu vung cao it di hop hoac neu co di thi chi ngoi nghe, it tham gia y kien vao cac cong viec cua dia phuong trong khi do, hop thon gan nhu la co hoi duy nhat de phu nu tiep can thong tin va bay to y kien, nguyen vong cua minh.

  • Nguyet Minh
Viet Bao
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Tìm hiểu: Da Nang, Quang Tri, tham gia chinh quyen, ngan hang the gioi, ke hoach dau tu, su tien bo, bat binh dang, bo ke hoach, giay chung nhan, phu nu, ty le, mu chu, can bo, tien trinh, dat
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